Could These 14 Objects Really Be Antimatter Stars? Study Suggests So
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Other paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06973
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BASE Antimatter Experiment opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter
BASE opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on how easily axion-like particles in a narrow mass range around 2.97 neV can turn into photons, the particles of light. BASE’s new result, published by Physical Review Letters, describes this pioneering method and opens up new experimental possibilities in the search for cold dark matter. Axions, or axion-like particles, are candidates for cold dark matter. From astrophysical observations, we believe that around 27% of the matter-energy content of the universe is made up of dark matter. These unknown particles feel the force of gravity, but they barely respond to the other fundamental forces, if they experience them at all. The best accepted theory of fundamental forces and particles, called the Standard Model of particle physics, does not contain any particles that have the right properties to be cold dark matter. Since the Standard Model leaves many questions unanswered, physicists have proposed theories that go beyond it, some of which explain the nature of dark matter. Among such theories are those that suggest the existence of axions or axion-like particles. These theories need to be tested, and many experiments have been set up around the world to look for these particles, including at CERN. For the first time, BASE has turned the tools developed to detect single antiprotons, the antimatter equivalent of a proton, to the search for dark matter. This is especially significant as BASE was not designed for such studies. “BASE has extremely sensitive detection systems to study the properties of single trapped antiprotons. These detectors can also be used to search for signals of particles other than those produced by antiprotons in traps. In this work, we used one of our detectors as an antenna to search for a new type of axion-like particles,” says Jack Devlin, a CERN research fellow working on the experiment. Compared to the large detectors installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), BASE is a small experiment. It is connected to CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, which supplies it with antiprotons. BASE captures and suspends these particles in a Penning trap, a device that combines electric and strong magnetic fields. To avoid collisions with ordinary matter, the trap is operated at 5 kelvins (around -268 degrees Celsius), a temperature at which exceedingly low pressures, similar to those in deep space, are reached. In this extremely well-isolated environment, clouds of trapped antiprotons can exist for years at a time. By carefully adjusting the electric fields, the physicists at BASE can isolate individual antiprotons and move them to a separate part of the experiment. In this region, very sensitive superconducting resonant detectors can pick up the tiny electrical currents generated by single antiprotons as they move around the trap. In the work published by Physical Review Letters, the BASE team looked for unexpected electrical signals in their sensitive antiproton detectors. At the heart of each detector is a small, approximately 4 cm in diameter, donut-shaped coil of superconducting wire, which looks similar to the inductors you often find in ordinary electronics. However, the BASE detectors are superconducting and have almost no electrical resistance, and all the surrounding components are carefully chosen so that they do not cause electrical losses. This makes the BASE detectors extremely sensitive to small electric fields. Physicists used the antiproton as a quantum sensor to calibrate the background noise on their detector. They then began to search for unusual signals, however faint, that could hint at those induced by axion-like particles and their possible interactions with photons. Nothing was found at the frequencies that were recorded, which means that BASE succeeded in setting new upper limits for the possible interactions between photons and axion-like particle with certain masses. With this study, BASE opens up possibilities for other Penning trap experiments to participate in the search for dark matter. Since BASE was not built to look for these signals, several changes could be made to increase the sensitivity and bandwidth of the experiment and improve the probability of finding an axion-like particle in the future. “With this new technique, we’ve combined two previously unrelated branches of experimental physics: axion physics and high-precision Penning trap physics. Our laboratory experiment is complementary to astrophysics experiments and especially sensitive in the low axion-mass range. With a purpose-built instrument we would be able to broaden the landscape of axion searches using Penning trap techniques,” says BASE spokesperson Stefan Ulmer. Official page of BASE: https://base.web.cern.ch/ Music from Overdrive by Anton Vlasov from artist.io
Far Future Rocket Engine Technologies - Fission, Fusion & Antimatter
In my NSWR video I used Kerbal Space Program to visualize the operation of this awesome engine in an imaginary future, this came from a free, fan created mod which covered a whole host of future engine concepts - Far Future Technologies by Nertea. The mod is available for the latest version of Kerbal Space Program, and I suggest looking at the other mods produced by the same creator covering a number of other space technologies not in the base game.
https://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/index.php?/topic/199070-111x-far-future-technologies-jan-7/ These designs and many more are covered in much more detail by Winchel Chung's Atomic Rockets website which is an invaluable resource if you're interested in realistic science fiction futures
Does Antimatter Explain Why There's Something Rather Than Nothing?
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https://mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime The most precious substance in our universe is not gold, nor oil. It’s not even printer ink. It’s antimatter. But it’s worth every penny of it’s very high cost, because it may hold the answer to the question of why anything exists in our universe at all. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
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What If We Detonated an Antimatter Bomb in Space?
#eldddir #eldddir_space #eldddir_bombs
What is Antimatter Explained
What is antimatter? What happens if matter and antimatter interact? How was antimatter discovered? Why don't we usually come across antimatter in our daily lives? All these questions and many more come to one's mind when thinking about antimatter. But, first things first! Let us first define and understand what antimatter is.
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Antimatter is opposite to matter, literally. For every sub-atomic particle, such an electron, a proton, a neutron, etc. there exists an antiparticle such as an anti-electron, anti-proton, and anti-neutron. The antiparticle will have the same mass as the particle, but it will differ in the sign of its charge and other quantum numbers. Some of these quantum numbers are the lepton number – one for the electron and each of the other five members of lepton family, and the baryon number – one third for the each of the six quarks that make up the baryon family. Antiparticles are expected to interact with other antiparticles in exactly the same way ordinary particles interact with each other. The laws of physics are (almost) symmetric when it comes to matter and antimatter. In fact, a Universe made up of antimatter would be indistinguishable from ours! Going into a little bit more detail, the anti-electron is called a positron (for positive electron) and it is positively charged with a lepton number of minus 1. The positron has exactly the same mass as the proton. The proton is a positively charged sub-atomic particle made up of three quarks giving it a baryon number of one. Its antiparticle, the antiproton, has the same mass as the proton but it is negatively charged with a baryon number of minus one (minus one third contributed from each of the three antiquarks that make up the antiproton). Neutral sub-atomic particles, such neutrons, are interesting. The antineutron has the same mass and zero charge as the neutron, but it will have a baryon number of minus one (again, minus one third coming from each of the three antiquarks that make up the antineutron). So what happens when matter and antimatter interact? The answer is fireworks! When a positron interacts with an electron they both annihilate to produce two X-ray energy photons! So, we are in luck that antimatter is so scarce in the Universe nowadays. Otherwise, we would have been burned by X-rays and gamma-rays every time matter and antimatter interacted. As a matter fact, if you were to meet your anti-self then both of you would annihilate and release the equivalent energy of roughly 2500 megatons, almost one third the total energy of the world's arsenal of nuclear weapons! Antimatter could sure make for mighty powerful spaceship engines, IF you can find a way to produce macroscopic amounts of antimatter AND a way to store it in isolation! Some modern particle accelerators regularly produce antiprotons for use in high energy physics experiments. Now that we know what antimatter is, let us see how physicists discovered it. Back in the year 1928, Paul Dirac, one of the founding fathers of the new science of quantum mechanics, was trying to solve an equation that included the effects of the theory of special relativity to describe the behavior of electrons in the microscopic world. To his surprise, the equation admitted solutions that corresponded to electrons with negative energy going back in time! Any insecure student of physics would have blushed with embarrassment and redid the math. However, Dirac was sure of his math. Instead, he reinterpreted his problematic solution to denote an “anti-electron” with positive energy going forward in time. Four years later, an experimental physicist by the name of Carl Anderson proved Dirac right by actually observing the anti-electron, the positron. The discovery of the positron earned Anderson the Nobel Prize in 1936. Dirac had already won the Nobel in 1933 for his contributions to atomic physics. Are you wondering where Anderson's positrons came from? The positrons that Anderson discovered originated in atmospheric showers of sub-atomic particles that result when very high energy cosmic rays (mostly protons) interact with atoms in Earth's atmosphere. The story of the prediction and subsequent discovery of the positron is instructive and shows how big discoveries in physics are often made. The device used by Anderson is called a cloud chamber and was a standard instrument used in nuclear physics labs at the time. A particle going through a cloud chamber would leave sort of a trail of bubbles in its wake. Applying a known magnetic field would curve the particle according to its charge. #InsaneCuriosity #Antimatter #QuantumPhysics
Antimatter Factories & Uses
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Antimatter Factories & Uses
Episode 239; May 21, 2020 Writers
Steve Nixon Editors
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Cracking the antimatter mystery: A three minute guide
Our universe is dominated by matter: it makes up everything around us. But physicists have long puzzled over the absence of antimatter. Theories say that antimatter should have been produced by the Big Bang just as matter was and in equal amounts. Now a huge experiment in Japan may have found a subtle imbalance which could help explain why our universe is the way it is. Reporter Elizabeth Gibney explores the concept of CP violation and explains what the new results could mean. Read the research here: https://nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2177-0
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Where is all the antimatter? | Unsolved Mystery in Physics
Anti-matter and matter were both made at the same time in the Big Bang - so why is everything around us now made of matter?
Go to https://curiositystream.com/drbecky and use promo code "drbecky" to get 31 days free! Sponsorship from Curiosity stream made this whole trip to CERN possible - funding flights and accommodation for two people - so a big thanks to them. To all my willing interviewees who I peppered with questions - Mark, Tara and April - you guys are the best for giving up your time. Also, a giant THANK YOU to Michaela Livingston-Banks (of Nailing Science fame) who took time away from the desk to follow me around with a camera all week. And a HUGE thank you to Stephanie Hills at CERN for scheduling this whole trip - she was my inbox fairy ❤️ This documentary-style video is new for me and I had loads of fun planning, filming and editing it so I hope you enjoy (sorry about the out of focus shot with April). Background music is “Surviving the Asteroid Belt” from the YouTube audio library. Purcell et al. (1997) - positron map of the Milky Way - https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/304994
The LHCb experiment - http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/
ALPHA experiment - http://alpha.web.cern.ch/
G-BAR experiment - https://home.cern/science/experiments/gbar
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What Would An Antimatter Universe Look Like?
Antimatter - How it is made 
Currently the only way to make antimatter is by smashing protons against a wall. Talk about raw methods. But this is not just any wall, it is a wall made of iridium among other elements. Sources
*Plutonium amount is nothing but an estimate
Recorded at the Royal Society Summer Exhibition in July 2012
Author - Stephen Curry
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Original video at - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9335CW2V5M
radio frequency cavities
the proton synchrotron booster
the proton synchrotron
the antiproton decelerator
Image Credits CERN
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Why This Stuff Costs $2700 Trillion Per Gram - Antimatter at CERN
Physics Girl is on Patreon! ►► https://www.patreon.com/physicsgirl There’s a factory in Europe that makes antimatter! It’s the rarest, most expensive, and potentially the most dangerous material on earth. Scientists don’t know why this material is so rare. Anti-atoms took 72 years after we discovered antimatter to make. Why? Thanks to CERN, Elise Wursten, Loïc Bommersbach and Sarah Charley http://physicsgirl.org/
http://instagram.com/thephysicsgirl Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
Editor: Levi Butner
Research & Writing: Sophia Chen & Dianna & Imogen Ashford Sources:
Current estimate of Antimatter, courtesy of Elise:
Stefan Ulmer made a back-of-the-envelope calculation based on energy and power consumption. The explanation goes as follows:
1. CERN produces 3e7 antiprotons per AD cycle or about 1e15 per year
2. This is about 1e15*1.67e-27kg = 1.67 nanogram per year
3. 1 gram of antiprotons has an energy (E=mc^2) of 9e13 Joule
4. The efficiency of the antiproton production process is 1e-9, so you need a billion times more energy: 9e22 Joule
5. The cost of power for CERN is 1kWh = 3.6e6 Joule = 0.1 euro
6. So that would make 0.1/3.6e6*9e22 = 2.5e15 euro
7. And it would take CERN 6e8 years https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19990110316.pdf (1999) https://nuclearsecrecy.com/nukemap/ - you can see the nuke city Mass of Fish: "Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle" http://rsmas.miami.edu/groups/grosell/PDFs/2009%20Wilson%20et%20al.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20120105085146/http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/spotlight/SpotlightAandD-en.html
Dirac’s attitude about the positive solution to his equation https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17111-how-dirac-predicted-antimatter/
Dave’s Essay: http://multimidia.ufrgs.br/conteudo/frontdaciencia/dirac%20antimatter%20paper.pdf Questions at CERN
https://public-archive.web.cern.ch/en/LHC/WhyLHC-en.html Creating Antihidrogen:
Why is There More Matter Than Antimatter in the Universe?
LHCb has observed CP violations in charm quarks. What implications does this have on our quest to find out why there's more matter than antimatter in the universe?
Subscribe for regular science videos: http://bit.ly/RiSubscRibe Tara Shears is Professor of Physics at the University of Liverpool. She is an experimental particle physicist, and focuses on testing the Standard Model at the high energy frontier with the LHCb experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. ---
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The Universe As We Know It Shouldn't Exist | The Matter-Antimatter Problem
The universe is a pretty grand place to live, but scientists have one issue with it, it's an anomaly that should be scientifically impossible. Hosted by: Hank Green SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It's called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at http://www.scishowtangents.org
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What is Antimatter?
You've met matter: It's the stuff that makes up your body, your computer, your galaxy...you get the picture. But what about its opposite, antimatter? Every known matter particle has an antimatter partner, but as far as physicists can tell, matter dominates the universe, and no one knows why. Watch this animation, narrated by Brian Greene, to learn about the mystery of antimatter, and dive deeper with our full program "The Matter of Antimatter." https://youtu.be/qMMgsjnI1is Narrated by Brian Greene
Animation by Eoin Duffy of Studio Belly
Written by Justin Weinstein and Brian Greene SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF
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Neutrinos, Matter, and Antimatter: The Yin Yang of the Big Bang
What happened to all of the universe's antimatter? Can a particle be its own anti-particle? And how do you build an experiment to find out? In this program, particle physicists reveal their hunt for a neutrino event so rare, it happens to a single atom at most once every 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years: far longer than the current age of the universe. If they find it, it could explain no less than the existence of our matter-filled universe. PARTICIPANTS: Janet Conrad, Andrea Pocar, Lindley Winslow MODERATOR: Natalie Wolchover MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS: https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/programs/nuts-bolts-better-brains-harnessing-power-neuroplasticity/ This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION. - SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel and "ring the bell" for all the latest videos from WSF
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- FOLLOW us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest TOPICS: - Panelist Introductions 0:08
- How was antimatter discovered? 1:03
- Conditions required to detect antimatter 3:13
- What are Majorana particles? 4:57
- Who was Ettore Majorana? 7:27
- How would we know if a neutrino is a Majorana particle? 9:02
- Experiments for detecting neutrinoless double-beta decay 12:12
- When did we start looking for neutrinos? 15:02
- IceCube Neutrino Observatory 18:34
- Other types of neutrinos 21:35
- Detecting neutrinos from the sun 24:24
- How did we figure out how to detect neutrinoless double-beta decay?26:44
- How far are we from producing results from the research? 30:45
- GERDA experiment 32:38
- How big of a deal would it be if we detect neutrinoless double-beta decay? 35:38
- What would it mean if neutrinoless double-beta decay doesn’t exist? 42:05
- Are we at the limit of the size of our detectors? 46:00
- Running experiments underground 48:08
- Predictions of when the decay will be seen 53:10
- Is there any evidence of the annihilation of matter and antimatter? 55:12 PROGRAM CREDITS:
- Produced by Justin Weinstein
- Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.
Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe
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https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The foundations of quantum theory rests on its symmetries. For example, it should be impossible to distinguish our universe from one that is that is the perfect mirror opposite in charge, handedness, and the direction of time. But one by one these symmetries were found to be broken, threatening to break all of physics along with them. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
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https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang In his famous lectures on physics, Richard Feynman talks about what it means to expect the universe to be identical in the mirror. For it to be parity-symmetric. He invites us to imagine a clock in a mirror reflection – numbers are backwards, components are all flipped left to right, and it ticks counterclockwise. And then we imagine building that mirror clock in reality. Everything is constructed as though reflected. Numbers get painted backwards. Every screw with right-handed thread or right-spiraling coil is replaced with a left-handed version. Our intuition tells us that the mirror clock should tick in exactly the same way, except counter-clockwise. Our intuition would be wrong. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits
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Decoding The Universe (Matter & Antimatter) - Documentary
Where is all the antimatter?
If you were to list the imperfections of the standard model – physicists’ remarkably successful description of matter and its interactions – pretty high up would have to be its prediction that we don’t exist. According to the theory, matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts at the big bang. By rights, they should have annihilated each other totally in the first second or so of the universe’s existence. The cosmos should be full of light and little else. And yet here we are. So too are planets, stars and galaxies; all, as far as we can see, made exclusively out of matter. Reality 1, theory 0. There are two plausible solutions to this existential mystery. First, there might be some subtle difference in the physics of matter and antimatter that left the early universe with a surplus of matter. While theory predicts that the antimatter world is a perfect reflection of our own, experiments have already found suspicious scratches in the mirror. In 1998, CERN experiments showed that one particular exotic particle, the kaon, turned into its antiparticle slightly more often than the reverse happened, creating a tiny imbalance between the two. That lead was followed up by experiments at accelerators in California and Japan, which in 2001 uncovered a similar, more pronounced asymmetry among heavier cousins of the kaons known as B mesons. Once the LHC at CERN is back up and running later this year, its LHCb experiment will use a 4500-tonne detector to spy out billions of B mesons and pin down their secrets more exactly. But LHCb won’t necessarily provide the final word on where all that antimatter went. “The effects seem too small to explain the large-scale asymmetry,” says Frank Close, a particle physicist at the University of Oxford. The second plausible answer to the matter mystery is that annihilation was not total in those first few seconds: somehow, matter and antimatter managed to escape each other’s fatal grasp. Somewhere out there, in some mirror region of the cosmos, antimatter is lurking and has coalesced into anti-stars, anti-galaxies and maybe even anti-life. “It’s not such a daft idea,” says Close. When a hot magnet cools, he points out, individual atoms can force their neighbours to align with magnetic fields, creating domains of magnetism pointing in different directions. A similar thing could have happened as the universe cooled after the big bang. “You might initially have a little extra matter over here and a little extra antimatter somewhere else,” he says. Those small differences could expand into large separate regions over time. These antimatter domains, if they exist, are certainly not nearby. Annihilation at the borders between areas of stars and anti-stars would produce an unmistakable signature of high-energy gamma rays. If a whole anti-galaxy were to collide with a regular galaxy, the resulting annihilation would be of unimaginably colossal proportions. We haven’t seen any such sign, but then again there’s a lot of universe that we haven’t looked at yet – and whole regions of it that are too far away ever to see. Finding anti-helium or other anti-atoms heavier than hydrogen would be concrete evidence for an anti-cosmos. It would imply that anti-stars are cooking up anti-atoms through nuclear fusion, just as regular stars fuse normal atoms. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a $1.5 billion piece of kit built to scour cosmic rays for just such signs. It is grounded at the moment, waiting for a lift up to the International Space Station, but will hopefully hitch a ride on one of NASA’s final space shuttle launches in 2010 or 2011. Antimatter mysteries 2: How do you make antimatter?
If we really wish to fathom the mysteries of antimatter, we must first get to grips with the stuff itself. Easier said than done. How on earth do you pin down a substance that vanishes the moment it touches anything? Two CERN experiments, ATRAP and ALPHA, are grappling with that question. Their aim is to make antihydrogen – the simplest anti-atom possible, just an antiproton and a positron bound together – in sufficient quantity and for long enough to compare the spectrum of light it emits with that of regular hydrogen. Even the slightest difference between the two would shake up the standard model. The experiments require a near-perfect vacuum, as encountering a mere atom of air would spell the end for any antiparticle, and there must be some way of trapping the antiparticles: not in a conventional container, but using electric and magnetic fields. decoding the universe
What Happens When You Put Antimatter in a Double Slit Experiment?
Interference patterns with particles have stumped scientists for years, but when they put antimatter through the test, they revealed an even bigger mystery. This Is The Only Place Antimatter Can Survive In The Universe - https://youtu.be/XD8Q3Mb1Q4I Read More:
First Observation Of Antimatter Wave Interference
“The periodic spatial distribution generated by the interferometer (Fig. 1) is revealed by a nuclear
emulsion detector. Nuclear emulsions14 offer submicron level position resolution in the detection of
ionizing particles9,15. They work as photographic films by exploiting the properties of silver-bromide
crystals embedded in a 50 μm thick gelatin matrix. For this experiment we developed a glass-supported emulsion detector and experimentally demonstrated its capability to resolve periodic patterns at the micrometric scale even with low signal contrast and on large areas” This Classic Physics Experiment Could Finally Reveal The Long-Awaited 'Theory of Everything'
“That’s not so strange though - we know that matter (ping-pong balls) doesn’t behave in the same way as waves. But when physicists fired particles like electrons and photons at the double slit, expecting them to act like matter, they instead acted like waves, producing an interference pattern. And it gets even crazier than that. These electrons and photons aren’t acting like matter, but they aren’t acting like waves either, because they’re not messing with each other to produce an interference pattern.” Antimatter mysteries 2: How do you make antimatter?
“Two CERN experiments, ATRAP and ALPHA, are grappling with that question. Their aim is to make antihydrogen – the simplest anti-atom possible, just an antiproton and a positron bound together – in sufficient quantity and for long enough to compare the spectrum of light it emits with that of regular hydrogen. Even the slightest difference between the two would shake up the standard model.”
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Visualising Antimatter with Bubble Chambers - Christmas Lectures with Frank Close
You can use a bubble chamber to visualise the passage of negatively charged electrons and their positively charged antimatter counterparts - positrons.
Watch the full lecture: http://www.rigb.org/christmas-lectures/watch/1993/the-cosmic-onion/invaders-from-outer-space?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=social&utm_term=description Frank Close gave the 1993 lectures "The Cosmic Onion" tracing a hundred years of discovery and invention. In his third lecture, Frank Close looks at the various methods of imaging fundamental particles. Watch the full series: http://www.rigb.org/christmas-lectures/watch/1993/the-cosmic-onion?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=social&utm_term=description The Ri is on Twitter: http://twitter.com/ri_science
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