SpacePod: Meet Callisto, a French and German reusable rocket
A Reusable rocketry project in Europe dubbed Callisto could test a European ability to launch, return and refly a rocket from the Guiana Space Centre in South America.
=== CONTINUE THE CONVERSATION ===
=== OUR REAL-TIME DISCORD CHANNEL ===
All of the TMRO Shows are created and maintained in our Discord channel. Escape Velocity Patrons have access to a special room, but we also have free #general rooms that anyone can participate in. Join in for free at https://discord.gg/9NkkFWD
=== TMRO IS CROWD FUNDED ===
TMRO:Space is a crowd funded show. If you like this episode consider contributing to help us to continue to improve. Head over to http://www.patreon.com/tmro for information plus our all new goals and reward levels
Jupiter and four Moons seen through Nikon P900
Jupiter And Moons Europa Lo Ganymede Callisto video captured through a 500$ camera Nikon P900 You can clearly see the four moons moving along with Jupiter
This is my first attempt on filming Jupiter and 4 of its moons, distance = 588 Million kilometers from the earth.
Saturn Ring captured by a 500$ camera Nikon P900 166x zoom https://youtu.be/wCqiv1EJFPc
Time Lapse Milky Way | 4K | Tosh Himachal Pradesh India| Sony A6300 https://youtu.be/OM9ZOGySKZ0
What the Jovian moon Callisto Sounds like
These plasma waves collected by the Galileo spacecraft have been translated into audio. Check out the full story on PCMag at: http://www.pcmag.com/feature/353576/8-creepy-sounds-recorded-in-space-by-nasa
Budget Astrophotography with Jupiter Io Ganymede Europa and Callisto 4-10-2017
NextStar tele with Logitech webcam. Jupiter in transit. The moons from Jupiter outward are Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. In a week or so I'm hoping to get full color images of Jupiter without the moon's light pollution.
You guys and gals have a decent webcam mod or astrocam you could recommend to me please and thank you 😀 😀 😀 ???
Terraforming Callisto and Ganymede in Universe Sandbox 2
10 Moons People Can Actually Live On
One day it will be an amazing scientific accomplishment when we colonize and bring life to a moon like Saturn's icy Enceladus.
Subscribe for new videos weekly!
Photographs and data sent back from the Voyager 2 spacecraft back in August of 1989 showed that the surface of Triton, Neptune’s largest moon, was made up of nitrogen ice and rock. The suspicion of liquid water being hidden beneath the surface was raised. Even though the moon has an atmosphere, it would be pretty much the same as if it didn’t have one because of how thin it is. The average temperature on the moon is an unbelievable -391 degrees Fahrenheit, making it the coldest body in the entirety of our solar system.
Also known as the “Death Star” moon and for good reason. Mimas is one of Saturn’s icy and rocky moons. Mimas might have an ocean located beneath its cold and unwelcoming -looking surface, which may possibly be better adapted for life. Close study of the Cassini footage by scientists shows that Mimas looks to rock back and forth as it went around on its orbit. This could imply activity underneath its surface. However, scientists were very wary with what they found, stating that there hadn’t been any other signs that point to geological activity. They merely stated that if an ocean was discovered, the moon could definitely be a candidate for being colonized. It’s believed that the theoretical ocean would be about 15 to 18 miles below the surface. If the rocking movement that supports this theory of an ocean proves to be false, then the movement is mostly likely because of a misshapen core due to the strong gravitational pull caused by Saturn’s rings
Exactly the same size as the planet Mercury, Callisto is Jupiter’s second largest moon that looks like it has a large liquid ocean hidden within its icy surface. The surface of Callisto mainly made up of craters and what are basically fields of ice. Callisto also has a relatively thin atmosphere consisting of carbon dioxide. Research that already been performed has suggested that this atmosphere is being filled up again and again by carbon dioxide that is released from below the surface because it is too thin to stay in place. Collected data implies the chance that oxygen could also be actively present inside of the atmosphere, but there would need to be further tests to confirm if this theory holds true. Callisto is positioned in a safe enough space from Jupiter that the giant planet’s radiation levels would be very mild.
Ganymede happens to be Jupiter’s largest moon and like other masses, in our solar system, it could potentially prove to have water trapped underneath its surface. If you were to compare it to other ice-covered moons, Ganymede’s surface is believed to be relatively thin and should be much easier to break through. This moon also happens to be the only moon with its own gravitational field that creates its own auroras, like the ones that are produced here on earth. Their pattern in movement also leads scientists to theorize there is an ocean trapped underneath the surface. Because of Ganymede’s thin oxygen atmosphere, it is too thin to support our life but maybe enough to support terraforming. Back in 2012, the European Space Agency got the okay to go ahead and launch a mission to go and explore Ganymede and two other of Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto. The operation is scheduled to launch in 2022 and reach the moon 10 years later. Out of the three moons to be explored, scientists believe that Ganymede will have the best environment to study and potentially support life, if possible.
1. The Moon
The first moon that mankind would colonate would, of course, be the earth’s very own moon. It’s been described as a good “dress rehearsal” for potential colonization missions in the future because of how close it is to earth compared to all the other moons. Earlier in March of this year, there was a story that was going around that this type of operation could be carried out within the next 10 years or so. NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay is one of the individuals whose onboard with making this mission come to fruition. His opinion is that other missions to the moon have failed because of the high cost, but his team has a plan that requires little compared to previous missions. Although NASA’s current focus is to get humans to land on Mars, McKay says that that won’t come to light until they can first get to the moon and set up permanent bases there first.
Jupiter - Callisto eclipse
JUPITER Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor (https://www.youtube.com/editor)
Jupiter with moons (Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa) in Kharkov, Ukraine 17.02.2016
Jupiter's Moons: Crash Course Astronomy #17
Before moving on from Jupiter to Saturn, we’re going to linger for a moment on Jupiter’s moons. There are 67 known moons, and 4 huge ones that we want to explore in greater detail. Ganymede is the largest - larger, in fact, than any other moon in the solar system and the planet Mercury! Callisto, orbiting the farthest out, is smaller but quite similar to Ganymede in many ways. Io, meanwhile, is most noteworthy for its tremendous volcanic activity. There’s also water on Ganymede and Europa!
This episode was brought to you by Squarespace http://www.squarespace.com/crashcourse
Table of Contents
Jupiter Has 67 Moons (4 Big Ones) 0:12
Ganymede is the Largest 1:15
Io is Riddled With Volcanoes 3:16
Europa Has an Undersurface Ocean 4:48
Io, Europa, and Ganymede Interact Gravitationally 3:48
Known Unknowns 8:06
PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios
Follow Phil on Twitter: https://twitter.com/badastronomer
Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse
Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse
Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com
Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse
Galileo’s notebook http://hos.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbid=4 [credit: Image(s) courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries; copyright the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.]
Jupiter’s moons http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA00600.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Ganymede http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011100/a011173/Image4_1920x1080.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk]
Interior of Ganymede https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PIA00519_Interior_of_Ganymede.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Ganymede terrain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ganymede_terrain.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Artist Conception of Ganymede http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubbles-view-of-ganymede-briefing-materials/ (Figure 5) [credit: NASA/ESA]
Callisto http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA03456.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Interior of Callisto https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callisto_(moon)#/media/File:PIA01478_Interior_of_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Valhalla crater on Callisto https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valhalla_crater_on_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA / JPL]
Io http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s1-1920.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/USGS]
Io volcano image http://solarviews.com/browse/jup/ioplumedisc.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL]
Io eruption video http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/IO_Eruption-540-MASTER_high.mp4 [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Io surface http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s2-1204.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona]
Jupiter Magnetosphere Schema https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Io_(moon)#/media/File:Jupiter_magnetosphere_schematic.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / Volcanopele]
Jupiter aurora http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/images/large/heic0009a.jpg [credit: NASA, ESA & John T. Clarke (Univ. of Michigan)]
Europa http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA19048.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute]
Europa ocean http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/1205/EuropasOcean_KPHand003.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Kevin Hand
Habitable zone diagram http://www.keckobservatory.org/images/made/images/gallery/solar_system/Slides-8_1800_1350.jpg [credit: PETIGURA/UC BERKELEY, HOWARD/UH-MANOA, MARCY/UC BERKELEY]
Amalthea http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA02532.jpg [c redit: NASA/JPL/Cornell University]
Jupiter shadowed by Europa, Callisto and Io
New NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope images capture a rare triple moon transit:
Europa, Callisto and Io pass across Jupiter on 24 January 2015.
NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team
G. Bacon, L. Frattare, Z. Levay, F. Summers (STScI/AURA)
Callisto transit of Jupiter; moon and shadow
I'm at the early stages of astrophotography so the quality is not good...
Images produced with 10" Meade Classic and Skyris 618C (Despite the evidence of my images, the camera is actually fantastic and even after a month of working with it, i'm getting much better results
Jupiter and moons Io, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa - 01/05/2014
Jupiter and moons in a line. live video sequence through telescope (102/1300) and post processed image - 01/05/2014
Jupiter und Monde in einer Reihe. Live Video-Aufnahme mittels Teleskop (102/1300) und nachträglich editiertes Bild - 05.01.2014
Jupiter GRS & Moons Europa, Ganymede & Callisto Nov 15th 4 46-5 05UT
Taken with SW Auto Dob 250 & QHY5L-II C
NASA's Galileo Mission to Jupiter
For more on the Galileo mission:
(I'll try and remember to post more once the government resumes business and more NASA sites come back online!)
Find more space and spaceflight history from my website: http://amyshirateitel.com
Connect on Facebook, Google+, and Twitter as @astVintageSpace
Space Pioneer: Season 1, Episode 4: ''Callisto''
'Space Pioneer' is a fascinating six-part series where physicist and host Dr. Basil Singer eagerly plays the role of human guinea pig in his quest to find answers. Follow him as he investigates whether humans could possibly call Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn's moon Titan, and Jupiter's moons Callisto and Gliese 581c their home in the future. In the name of science, Dr. Singer subjects himself to extreme temperatures, tests new survival technologies designed to keep humans alive in harsh environments, suffers the rigors of travel in zero gravity, explores ideas for new human habitats in the sky, and much more.
Physicist and robot-maker Dr Basil Singer tries to find out if people could live on Jupiter's moons, and explores the potential of Callisto.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is a moon of the planet Jupiter. It was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System and the second largest in the Jovian system, after Ganymede, and the largest object in the Solar System not to be properly differentiated. At 4821 km in diameter, Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1880000 km. It is not part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites—Io, Europa and Ganymede—and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating. Callisto's rotation is tidally locked to its orbit around Jupiter, so that the same hemisphere always faces inward; Jupiter appears to stand nearly still in Callisto's sky. It is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because of its more remote orbit, located just outside Jupiter's main radiation belt.
Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices, with a mean density of about 1.83 g/cm3, the lowest density and surface gravity of Jupiter's major moons. Compounds detected spectroscopically on the surface include water ice, carbon dioxide, silicates, and organic compounds. Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.
The surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System. It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics or volcanism, with no signs that geological activity in general has ever occurred, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits. At a small scale, the surface is varied and made up of small, sparkly frost deposits at the tips of high spots, surrounded by a low-lying, smooth blanket of dark material. This is thought to result from the sublimation-driven degradation of small landforms, which is supported by the general deficit of small impact craters and the presence of numerous small knobs, considered to be their remnants.The absolute ages of the landforms are not known.
Callisto is surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and probably molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere. Callisto is thought to have formed by slow accretion from the disk of the gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation. Callisto's gradual accretion and the lack of tidal heating meant that not enough heat was available for rapid differentiation. The slow convection in the interior of Callisto, which commenced soon after formation, led to partial differentiation and possibly to the formation of a subsurface ocean at a depth of 100–150 km and a small, rocky core.
The likely presence of an ocean within Callisto leaves open the possibility that it could harbor life. However, conditions are thought to be less favorable than on nearby Europa.Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied Callisto. Because of its low radiation levels, Callisto has long been considered the most suitable place for a human base for future exploration of the Jovian system.
Callisto: A Moon of Jupiter
This is a video I made that served as a presentation in my Science class. It walks you through a number of facts and statistics associated with one of the planet Jupiter's moons; Callisto.
I edited this video using iMovie, and created the presentation using Keynote. The commentary was recorded using my Mac's built in microphone.
Planet Jupiter with its moons Europa, Io, Callisto. 29th November 2012
Just a little video of Jupiter on 29th Nov , You can also see three of its moons Europa - Io - Callisto , Used a 70-200mm lens & my camera to record .
Callisto: Jupiter's Dead Moon | Video
99% the diameter of Mercury but only a third of Mercury's mass, what lies beneath deep beneath Callisto's pockmarked surface may surprise you. And it's probably the best place to base future explorations of the Jupiter system.
Jupiter's moon Callisto through my telescope
Video by: Victor Lupu
Optics: Celestron C8"-Newtonian telescope, plossl 20mm, 2x Barlow
Mount: CG5 (EQ5)
Device: Sony CX105 at 7x optical zoom
Total magnification: 700x
Location: Baia Mare, Romania
Editing: Video stabilized in Sony Vegas 10
Saturn's Mysterious Moons
Launched three years before the new century... a spacecraft wound its way through the empty reaches of the solar system. On Earth, its progress was little noted, as it swung twice by the planet Venus, then our moon. And Earth. The asteroid belt. And Jupiter.
Almost seven years later, on the first of July 2004, the Cassini probe entered the orbit of Saturn. It then began to compile what has become one of the greatest photographic collections of all time, of a giant gas planet, surrounded by colorful rings, guarded by a diverse collection of moons, and millions of tiny moonlets.
Within this record, is a trail of clues... pointing to the energy sources and complex chemistry needed to spawn life. What are these mysterious worlds telling us about the universe, and Earth?
In the outer reaches of the solar system, a billion and a half kilometers from the Sun... there is a little world known as Enceladus. Nearly all of the sunlight that strikes its icy surface is reflected back into space, making it one of the brightest objects in the solar system.
At its equator, the average temperature is minus 198 degrees Celsius. It can rise about 70 degrees higher in grooves that stretch across the south pole like tiger stripes. Looming over it is the giant planet Saturn.
In myth, Saturn - the Roman name for the primal Greek God Chronos - was the youngest son of Gaia, or Earth, and Uranus, sky. Wielding a scythe provided by his mother, the story goes, Saturn confronted his abusive father, castrating him. The blood of Uranus flowed into the seas, fertilizing the Earth and giving rise to Enceladus and other giant offspring.
Saturn's moon Enceladus has its own tangled story. In 2005, the Cassini spacecraft spotted plumes of water vapor shooting out into space from its south pole.
More recent close encounters have revealed jets of water, flavored by slightly salty chemical compounds, spewing out from vents in the rough, cracked polar terrain. That may mean that Enceladus harbors a remarkable secret below its frigid surface: A liquid ocean, and perhaps, a chemical environment that could spawn simple life forms.
It's not the only promising stop in the realm of Saturn. The moon Titan is often said to resemble Earth in its early days. It is lined with volcanoes and a hazy atmosphere rich in organic compounds.
While Enceladus is the size of Great Britain, Titan is ten times larger, 50% larger than our moon, and the second largest moon in our solar system.
We've known about Titan since the astronomer Christian Huygens discovered it in 1655, and Enceladus since William Herschel spotted it in August 1789, just after the start of the French Revolution.
Scientists began to investigate these moons in earnest with the launch of the two Voyager spacecraft in 1977. The lineup of outer planets in the solar system allowed the spacecraft to fly past each of them.
They disclosed new details about their magnetic fields, atmospheres, ring systems, and inner cores. But what really turned heads were the varied shapes and surfaces of their moons.
They've all been pummeled over the millennia by wayward asteroids and comets. A few appear to be sculpted by forces below their surfaces. Neptune's largest moon Triton has few craters. It's marked with circular depressions bounded by rugged ridges. There are also grooves and folds that stretch for dozens of miles, a sign of fracturing and deforming.
Triton has geysers too, shooting some five miles above the surface. But on this frigid moon -- so far from the Sun -- the liquid that spouts is not water but nitrogen.
Tiny Miranda, one of 27 known moons that orbit Uranus, wears a jumbled skin that's been shaped and reshaped by forces within. Jupiter's moon Io -- orbiting perilously close to the giant planet is literally turning itself inside out. Rivers of lava roll down from open craters that erupt like fountains.
Flying by Europa, Voyager documented a complex network of criss-crossing grooves and ridges. In the 1990s, the Galileo spacecraft went back to get a closer look. It found that Europa's surface is a crazy quilt of fractured plates, cliff faces and gullies... amid long grooves like a network of superhighways. How did it get like this?
Then, heat rising up through a subsurface ocean of liquid water cracks, and shifts, and spreads the icy surface in a thousand different ways. Europa's neighbors, Callisto and Ganymede, show similar features, suggesting they too may have liquid oceans below their surfaces.
Crossing outward to Saturn, Voyager found a similar surface on the moon Enceladus. So when the Cassini spacecraft arrived in 2004, it came looking for answers to a range of burning questions: if this moon and others have subsurface oceans? Do they also have the ability to cook up and support life? And what could they tell us about the origin of life throughout the galaxy?
Teach Astronomy - Callisto
Jupiter's Callisto is the third largest moon in the solar system behind Jupiter's Ganymede and Saturn's Titan. It is similar is size to the planet Mercury. Callisto is the outermost of the four Galilean satellites, and it has an orbital period around Jupiter of nearly seventeen days. Galileo used observations of Callisto especially to show that Kepler's laws applied to moons orbiting a planet as well as to planets orbiting the Sun. Callisto has a dark and bright surface, the dark regions representing soils that have been blasted by craters and the bright areas representing geologically younger regions of frozen water ice.
Science Sphere: Callisto (Jupiter moon)
Kennedy Space Center, USA
Astronaut Hall of Fame
Science Sphere: Callisto (Jupitor moon)
http://facebook.com/ScienceReason ... "Jupiter's Moons" with Jane Houston Jones at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.
Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason:
Jupiter has 63 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System.
The most massive of them, the four Galilean moons, were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun.
From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests, or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter, or his Greek equivalent, Zeus.
The Galileans are far and away the largest objects in orbit around Jupiter, with the remaining 59 moons and the rings together comprising just 0.003 percent of the total orbiting mass.
Jupiters largest moons were first seen 400 years ago in early 1610. On the seventh of January, 1610 in Padua, Italy, Galileo looked up above the constellation Orion. He aimed his telescope at the well-known starry wanderer, the planet Jupiter, which was near Orion that night.
What he saw through his telescope startled him and marked the beginning of modern astronomy.Jupiter was not just one object, as he wrote and drew in his journal. There are three stars in the heavens moving about Jupiter, as Venus and Mercury around the sun, he wrote.
Galileos January 7 observation showed three stars. The one star to the west was Ganymede. And to the east there were two objects.One was the moon Callisto. And the other was a tight pairing of Io and Europa. Io and Europa appeared so close together they looked like one object in Galileos modest telescopic view.
On January 8 he saw a different lineup altogether. There were three stars on one side of the planet. Io was the moon closest to the planet, followed by Europa and Ganymede. Two cloudy nights and two additional observations later, on January 13 Galileo identified a fourth object orbiting Jupiter.
The arrangement this night turned out to be Europa on the east and Ganymede, Io and Callisto on the west. On January 15 all four stars were seen on one side of the planet. Everyone who aims a modest telescope, or even binoculars, at Jupiter will see the same view that Galileo did.
The views of tiny moons orbiting the king of the planets will surprise and delight all who look up. [ Jupiter is hard to see in the evening sky this month. But northern hemisphere observers may see Jupiter and Venus close together, low on the southwestern horizon, on Valentines Day.
Then it will be a few months wait until Jupiter becomes visible in the morning sky. By August you can once again view Jupiter and the four Galilean moons after dinner or as soon as the sun sets and the stars come out. NASAs Galileo Mission, which ended in 2003, changed the way we look at our solar system.
It found evidence of subsurface saltwater on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto and intense volcanic activity on Io. NASAs JUNO Mission will launch in 2011 on a mission to study Jupiter. And the Europa-Jupiter System Mission, a joint mission of the European Space Agency and NASA, is slated to launch in 2020.It will primarily study Jupiters moons Europa and Ganymede and Jupiters magnetosphere.
Jupiter's Moon: Callisto Rotation
Callisto (pronounced /kəˈlɪstoʊ/,or as Greek Καλλιστώ) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System and the second largest in the Jovian system, after Ganymede. Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1 880 000 km. It does not form part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites—Io, Europa and Ganymede—and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating. Callisto rotates synchronously with its orbital period, so the same face is always turned toward Jupiter. Callisto's surface is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because it orbits farther away.
Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices, with a mean density of about 1.83 g/cm3. Compounds detected spectrally on the surface include water ice, carbon dioxide, silicates, and organic compounds. Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.
The surface of Callisto is heavily cratered and extremely old. It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics, earthquakes or volcanoes, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits. At a small scale, the surface is varied and consists of small, bright frost deposits at the tops of elevations, surrounded by a low-lying, smooth blanket of dark material. This is thought to result from the sublimation-driven degradation of small landforms, which is supported by the general deficit of small impact craters and the presence of numerous small knobs, considered to be their remnants.The absolute ages of the landforms are not known.
Callisto is surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and probably molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere. Callisto is thought to have formed by slow accretion from the disk of the gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation. Its slowness and the lack of tidal heating prevented rapid differentiation. The slow convection in the interior of Callisto, which commenced soon after formation, led to partial differentiation and possibly to the formation of a subsurface ocean at a depth of 100150 km and a small, rocky core.
The likely presence of an ocean within Callisto indicates that it can or could harbor life. However, this is less likely than on nearby Europa. Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied the moon. Callisto has long been considered the most suitable place for a human base for future exploration of the system of Jupiter.
Discovered by G. Galilei
Discovery date January 7, 1610
Alternate name Jupiter IV
Adjective Callistoan, Callistian
Periapsis 1 869 000 km[b]
Apoapsis 1 897 000 km[a]
Mean orbit radius 1 882 700 km
Eccentricity 0.007 4
Orbital period 16.689 018 4 d
Average orbital speed 8.204 km/s
Inclination 0.192° (to local Laplace planes)
Satellite of Jupiter
Mean radius 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths)
Surface area 7.30 × 107 km2 (0.143 Earths)
Volume 5.9 × 1010 km3 (0.0541 Earths)
Mass 1.075 938 ± 0.000 137 × 1023 kg (0.018 Earths)
Mean density 1.834 4 ± 0.003 4 g/cm3
Equatorial surface gravity 1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g)
Escape velocity 2.440 km/s
Rotation period synchronous
Axial tilt zero
Albedo 0.22 (geometric)
K min mean max
80 ± 5 134 ± 11 165 ± 5
Apparent magnitude 5.65 (opposition)
Surface pressure 7.5 pbar
Composition ~4 × 108 cm−3 carbon dioxide
up to 2 × 1010 cm−3 molecular oxygen
Camera Only: Jupiter and four moons. Callisto, Ganymede, Io, Europa
Camera Only: Jupiter and four moons. Moons identified through
as Callisto, Ganymede, Io, and Europa
I own all rights to this video. I hereby release this entire production to the public domain to be used as a whole or in parts. Feel free to copy, mirror or distribute this video with or without accreditation.
If I can stay up late enough, Venus and Mars are next. ;-D
Exodus Earth: Callisto, Jupiter's Ice Moon
Callisto eclipses Io, 2009 May16
Every 6 years there is a period of several months where it is possible for a moon of Jupiter to cast its shadow onto another moon (eclipse) or pass in front of another moon (occultation). The latest period started in May 2009.
This video records an eclipse of Io by the shadow of Callisto. Io is the moon closest to Jupiter on the left. The shadow is being cast by the moon Callisto, which is the next moon out to the left. [The third moon is Ganymede.] The time is shown at the bottom of the image. The eclipse extends from about 18 39m to 18 48m, with the maximum being at 18h 44m. The eclipse was a penumbral eclipse, which meant that Io merely faded in brightness - it does not disappear completely from view.
Jupiter and its moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
Jupiter and its moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto as seen on 12th July 2008 with my 8" Newtonian Reflector Telescope and webcam from Charlotte city North Carolina State USA