Hubble, Mt. Wilson and the Expanding Universe
Edwin Hubble's contributions have been invaluable to the study of our universe. We visited Mt. Wilson Observatory to learn about his research and his legacy. FOLLOW US on social media and at our website!
Hubble’s Contentious Constant Is In Trouble
Thanks to astronomer Edwin Hubble and others, scientists have known since 1929 that our universe is expanding. Its current rate of expansion is called Hubble’s Constant (H0). There are two leading ways to measure H0, and for fifteen years, they more or less agreed with one another. Not anymore, and that’s a big deal. Here’s why. In the “Standard Model of Cosmology,” H0 is a crucial ingredient, right up there with the speed of light. H0 factors into everything we know about the universe: how old it is, how big it is, what it’s made of... If H0 is ‘tweaked’, we get a different age of the universe, different relative amounts of matter, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Unlike the speed of light, however, scientists can’t measure H0 in the laboratory. Instead, H0 has to be inferred from observations of the universe. One way scientists have measured H0 is to use observations of type 1a supernovae combined with their host galaxies redshifts. Each 1a supernova releases roughly the same amount of light when it explodes. Measuring the amount of light we receive from a 1a supernova tells us its distance. Measuring an object’s redshift, or its increase in wavelength, tells us how fast that object is moving away from Earth. Researchers use many 1a supernovae as distance markers, measuring objects in our local universe then moving out to get a measurement of the universe’s rate of expansion. The other H0 measurement technique looks at the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) -- the “afterglow” from the Big Bang itself. The early universe was hot and dense, light couldn’t travel freely through space. As the universe cooled, the photons were released. This radiation left an imprint, providing insights into the composition of the universe at that time. The CMB can be used to make measurements from the early universe such as the density of dark matter and dark energy. Those measurements can be combined with the model of the evolution of the universe, allowing researchers to infer the rate of expansion of the universe, or Hubble’s Constant. As these two camps have improved their abilities to measure H0, it has become clear that they disagree. A recent study using the first method yielded an 8% greater expansion rate than the second method’s result. Now scientists are asking: Are we missing something? Wendy Freedman, Sullivan professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Chicago says, “It could be that we don’t understand the uncertainties well enough to know why these two methods differ.” Freedman led a 2001 study using the Hubble Space Telescope to measure H0 via the first method, and is leading a new project to measure it more accurately. Another intriguing question: Is it incorrect to expect agreement in these measurements of H0? Maybe the Standard Model of Cosmology, which predicts agreement, is wrong. That would send researchers on an exciting search for a new model of the cosmos. “Do we really know what makes up all of the radiation in the Big Bang?” wonders Freedman. “Is there a new kind of particle we aren’t accounting for? Or are dark energy’s or dark matter’s properties changing over time? Over the next few years, researchers like Freedman will be trying to poke holes in how each method conducts its analysis -- before possibly invoking a revised model of cosmology. Credit: NASA science.nasa.gov.
ScienceCasts: Hubble’s Contentious Constant
Visit http://science.nasa.gov/ for more. There are two leading ways to measure the universe's rate of expansion, and for fifteen years, they more or less agreed with one another. Not anymore, and that’s a big deal.
EDWIN HUBBLE - 20 November 1889
Happy Birthday to one of the great modern astronomers and pioneer in galaxy identifiaction, Mr Edwin Hubble!!
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The Hubble constant and our expanding universe!!
Welcome to the Hubble Constant and Hubble's Law!!!
The first time I learned about this theory my mind exploded.
It's too good to not share!!
Hubble's Law is based on the discover made by Astronomer Edwin Hubble, that a lot of what we see in the night sky is not all from our Milky Way galaxy, but instead a whole other galaxy!!! This discover lead to the discovery of many other galaxies and the acceleration of them, leading to the realization that our universe is expanding--and expanding at a very fast rate at that!
INSANE... I know!
There's so much cool stuff to learn out there, so keep exploring and thanks for watching!
See ya next week! xoxo
Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF
You can support us by purchasing something through our Amazon-Url, thanks 🙂 The Hubble sequence is a morphological classification scheme for galaxies invented by Edwin Hubble in 1926.It is often known colloquially as the Hubble tuning fork diagram because of the shape in which it is traditionally represented.Hubble’s scheme divides regular galaxies into 3 broad classes – ellipticals, lenticulars and spirals – based on their visual appearance .A fourth class contains galaxies with an irregular appearance. ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission---
About the author(s): The original uploader was Cosmo0 at English Wikipedia (Original text: None given)
License: Public domain
---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision. Article available under a Creative Commons license
Image source in video
Edwin Hubble And His Landmark Discoveries
Edwin Hubble's Galactic Observations - 7/30/16 - Physics II
TNECampus final Capstone Project
How Hubble Changed Astronomy
Astronomer Katey Alatalo talks about the Hubble sequence of galaxies and Edwin Hubble's discoveries. Watch the full Carnegie Institution for Science lecture: http://f4a.tv/1TkHVsZ
Just For Fun! - Astronomy (14) How Did They Figure Out The Age of The Universe?
Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! In this video I will explain out astronomers (Edwin Hubble) calculated the age of the universe. Next video in this Just For Fun series can be seen at:
Amazing Plan - Distressed by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
The Man the Hubble Space Telescope was Named After
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https://youtu.be/hhsO5XNDcR8?list=PLR0XuDegDqP33-NUx7wuKb-3PDj-gRKgR In this video: The man behind the name is Edwin Hubble. Born in 1886, Hubble enjoyed books like Jules Verne’s 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, perhaps a prelude to his lifelong dedication to science and astronomy. His family initially lived in Missouri, but moved to Chicago when he was just ten years old. Want the text version?: http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/02/hubble-telescope-named/ Sources: http://www.mtwilson.edu/his/art/g1a4.php
Edwin Hubble - The Eyes Behind the Telescope - HD
Explore the man behind the name, Edwin Hubble, and the great observations he made in order to take us further and understand more about the way we view space in modern day Astrology. What did Hubble discover? How did He take us further? what changes did Hubble bring to Modern day Astrology? Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century. Read more about Edwin here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble
http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/hubble_essentials/edwin_hubble.php All footage sourced from HubbleCast
Edwin Hubble and and His Observation of Other Galaxies Outside of the Milky Way
Edwin Hubble, the Hubble Telescope and the Expansion of the Universe.
A brief walk-through of Edwin Hubble's observations, the Hubble Telescopes observations, and how they have contributed to the idea of an expanding universe.
Hey Bill Nye, 'Is the Expansion of the Universe Gaining Speed?' #TuesdaysWithBill
Give yourself the gift of knowledge — subscribe to Big Think Edge: http://bit.ly/bigthinkedge If you're interested in licensing this or any other Big Think clip for commercial or private use, contact our licensing partner Executive Interviews: https://www.executiveinterviews.biz/rightsholders/bigthink/ Edwin Hubble's discovery that the universe is expanding changed not only the way we think of the universe, but also how we understand the passage of time. Bill Nye the Science Guy explains... Do you want to ask Bill a question for a future "Tuesdays with Bill?" Click here to learn how to submit: (http://goo.gl/Joiqzo). Read more at BigThink.com: http://bigthink.com/videos/bill-nye-on-the-accelerating-expansion-of-the-universe Follow Big Think here:
Twitter: https://twitter.com/bigthink Transcript - Marty Behsman: Bill. How are you doing? My name is Marty Behsman. I'm from Boston Massachusetts, New England. My question for you is do you believe that as space expands it starts moving at a faster and less controlled rate? I've always wondered this given our ancestors had such a closer view of time and space than we have now and it seems to have been moving pretty much faster away from us than as they had says a huge view of galaxies and what they originally mapped out. Thank you very much. Bill Nye: Marty. Marty. Marty. So you're asking a great question. Keep in mind that in my grandfather's time it was believed by a great many people that the universe was static, that it just is the way it's always been. It's big, some extraordinarily huge size and it had always been that way. Then in my father's time relativity was discovered and furthermore the expanding universe was discovered. It was discovered nominally or largely credited to Edwin Hubble and that's what we named the space telescope after Hubble because he was looking at the stars, he was an astronomer studying various types of stars and he could identify different types of stars and then realized that all of them of a certain type were moving farther away at a very high speed. And you determine this through this famous expiration the red shift. He noticed that the stars were slightly redder than he would have expected. And this he attributed to their speed stretching the wavelength of light out. It's amazing. And this was around 1927, 1928/29. Hubble realized the universe was expanding and this was consistent with certain aspects of relativity of Einstein's postulations or theories. All right, well then, in your lifetime Marty, people discovered that the universe is not only expanding – in fact after Hubble made the discovery everybody presumed or question or tried to figure out at what rate the universe would slow down. In other words everybody figured there's gravity, there's a big - if everything is expanding it expanded from a place. And keep in mind the big insight is not just that the matter that you and I are made of and the sun is made of that space itself is expanding. It's a hard idea. If you're not troubled by this idea you're odd, but that space itself is expanding. And furthermore, it was presumed that it would slow down, that gravity would make things slow down in their expansion and people were trying to figure out that rate. But what they discovered around the year 2000, Nobel Prize I think was awarded in 2004, what they discovered is the universe is accelerating. And do you know why it's exhilarating? Nobody knows why Marty and this is the fascination. This is a source that just makes us all crazy in a good way. And so in this mix now it's been discovered that there is about five times as much matter or whatever it is that we can't see that has come to be called dark matter. And it's about five times as much of that as there is of the stuff that you and I are made of. And you know why? Nobody knows why, but it's gravitational influence is of great significance when you start to study the cosmos. So you Marty are living at a time where the next great discovery about the expansion of the universe, the nature of space and time is understood. You may be here when the next amazing world changing insight in astrophysics or physics or science is made. So when you go to vote Marty vote to support basic research because these discoveries are important to us. That's how we have nuclear power plants. It's how we have the Internet is understanding this physics of subatomic particles and how they relate to the physics of the cosmos, our place in space. And so who knows what the next great discovery will lead to, but it's worth pursuing because we all want to know where we came from. We want to know where we fit in the cosmos, our place in space. Cool question. Carry on!
Edwin Hubble, the Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law. Astronomers of the 20th Century.
Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century.
Hubble is known for showing that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the earth, implying the Universe is expanding, a law of physics known as "Hubble's law". Subscribe - never miss a video!
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Space Today TV Ep.86 - A Biografia de Edwin Hubble
No último século, os astrônomos descobriram muitos objetos cósmicos novos e misteriosos, como quasars, buracos negros, explosões de raios gamma e distantes exoplanetas. As recentes descobertas podem até ser impressionantes, mas a alguns anos atrás, durante os anos de 1920, um único homem mudou toda a percepção do nosso lugar no universo, seu nome era Edwin Hubble. Nascido no Missouri em 1889, Edwin Hubble desenvolveu sua paixão por astronomia logo cedo, depois de ganhar seu primeiro telescópio quando ele tinha apenas 8 anos. Em 1917, enquanto fazia seu doutorado, Hubble recebeu uma oferta de trabalho que mudou sua vida para sempre, oferta essa feita por Ellery Hale, fundador do Observatório Monte Wilson, na Califórnia. Mas a oportunidade surgiu numa hora errada, os EUA tinham acabado de entrar na Primeira Guerra Mundial, e Hubble havia se alistado no exército. Em 1919, o agora Major Hubble retornou da guerra e imediatamente viajou para o Observatório de Monte Wilson, ainda com uniforme, ele chegou e anunciou que estava pronto para iniciar as observações. Em 1923, Hubble fez sua primeira importante descoberta usando a mais avançada tecnologia da época, o Telescópio Hooker de 2.5 metros, medindo a distância para as estrelas conhecidas como Variáveis Cefeidas. Ele então descobriu que elas residiam em galáxias que não eram a Via Láctea. Naquela época, a visão que prevalecia era de que o universo era constituído somente da Via Láctea. Hubble descobriu que a nossa Via Láctea era somente uma das muitas que existiam, mudando para sempre a nossa visão do nosso lugar no universo. Depois dessa descoberta espetacular, Hubble começou a analisar e classificar as galáxias que eram descobertas, agrupando-as de acordo com a sua aparência visual, em espirais, elípticas, lenticulares, e aquelas que tinham uma aparência irregular.
Essa classificação ficou conhecida como a Sequência de Hubble e ainda é o sistema mais popular existente para classificar as galáxias. A maior realização de Hubble veio em 1929, quando ele determinou que a luz que nós recebemos das galáxias é mais avermelhada quanto mais distante de nós a galáxia está.
Com isso ele foi capaz de deduzir que quanto mais distante uma galáxia está de nós mais rápida ela parece se afastar. A chamada Lei de Hubble, a descoberta observacional dessa relação, derruba a visão convencional de um universo estático e demonstra que o universo está se expandindo. Essa é considerada a primeira evidência observacional da teoria do Big Bang. Hubble gastou a última parte da sua carreira fazendo campanha para que a astronomia fosse reconhecida como uma área da física pelo comitê do prêmio Nobel. O comitê finalmente fez com que seu trabalho astronômico fosse elegível para o prêmio de física em 1953, mas Hubble nunca soube disso, pois ele morreu poucos meses antes. Se a decisão tivesse sido tomada um pouco antes Hubble poderia ter vivido para receber um prêmio Nobel. Anos depois da morte de Hubble, a NASA e a ESA batizaram seu novo telescópio espacial em homenagem a Edwin Hubble. Hubble foi a escolha óbvia ao nomear um novo observatório que iria revolucionar o campo da astronomia, da mesma maneira que Edwin Hubble mudou a nossa percepção do universo e o nosso lugar dentro dele, e o seu espírito de descoberta com certeza vive hoje junto com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble. Email para enviar os vídeos: [email protected]
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Obrigado pela audiência e boa diversão!!!
Life Of Hubble
Decades before the Hubble Space Telescope, Dr. Edwin Powell Hubble revolutionised the field of astronomy. Take a look at the life and work of this brilliant American astronomer for whom the Hubble Space Telescope is named. From Hubblecast.
Hubblecast 89: Edwin Hubble
When you hear the name "Hubble", you probably think of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. But, decades before the Hubble Space Telescope, Dr Edwin Powell Hubble revolutionised the field of astronomy. In the newest Hubblecast, we take a look at the life and work of this brilliant American astronomer for whom the Hubble Space Telescope is named. More information and download options: http://www.spacetelescope.org/videos/hubblecast89a/ Subscribe to Hubblecast in iTunes! https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/hubblecast-hd/id258935617 Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: https://vimeo.com/hubbleesa Watch more Hubblecavideo.web_category.allst episodes: http://www.spacetelescope.org/videos/archive/category/hubblecast/ Credit:
Directed by: Mathias Jäger
Visual design and editing: Martin Kornmesser
Written by: Rebecca Louise Davies, Georgia Blazon
Narration: Sara Mendes da Costa
Images: NASA, ESA/Hubble, Huntington Library, California Institute of Technology, Hans A. Rosbach, Jonathunder
Animations: NASA, ESA/Hubble
Music: zero-project (zero-project.gr)
Web and technical support: Mathias Andre and Raquel Yumi Shida
Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen
Hubble: The Man Behind the Name
As we approach the 25th anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope launching into space, we will be taking time to recognize the man who the famous telescope is named after: Edwin Hubble. Edwin Hubble is most widely known for being the astronomer that observed and detected the cepheid variable inside M31 The Great Nebula in Andromeda (now known as the Andromeda Galaxy), which was the evidence needed to show that the Universe we reside in is not a static one, but was expanding. These observations were made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the 1920s and heralded a new way for humanity to understand the Universe. Please join +Tony Darnell, Dr.+Carol Christian and +Scott Lewis, who will be on location at the Carnegie Observatories office in Pasadena Calfornia, with Dr. John Mulchaey the acting director of the Carnegie Observatories as well as Nicholas (Nik) Arkimovich, a senior docent at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Together, they will bring fascinating insights into who Edwin Hubble was, as well as his remarkable achievements in astronomy. Read more about here:
Carnegie Observatories: https://obs.carnegiescience.edu/
Mount Wilson Observatory: http://www.mtwilson.edu/ New Hubble eBook:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/hubble-space-telescope-discoveries/id983709653?mt=11 Hubble Mania Posters:
http://hubblesite.org/gallery/wallpaper/ #Hubble25 #HubbleHangout #Astronomy #Science #Space #HistSci #EdwinHubble #Hubble
AST201 - Edwin Hubble's Observation on an Expanding Universe and Its Impact
Edwin Hubble’s observation concerning an expanding universe has had a strong impact on human society. It can definitely be presented as a competent candidate for "the most significant astronomical observation".
Edwin Hubble - History channel
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century. Hubble is known for showing that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the earth, implying the Universe is expanding. Known as "Hubble's law", this relation had been discovered previously by Georges Lemaître, a Belgian priest/astronomer who published his work in a less visible journal. There is still much controversy surrounding the issue, and some argue that it should be referred to as "Lemaître's law", although this change has not taken hold in the astronomy community.
Edwin Hubble is also known for providing substantial evidence that many objects then classified as "nebulae" were actually galaxies beyond the Milky Way. American astronomer Vesto Slipher provided the first evidence for this argument almost a decade before.
Edwin Hubble supported the Doppler shift interpretation of the observed redshift that had been proposed earlier by Slipher, and that led to the theory of the metric expansion of space. He tended to believe that the frequency of light could, by some so far unknown means, decrease the longer light travels through space.
Hubble at 25: The Original Hubble
The Hubble Space Telescope is named after one of the preeminent astronomers of the last century, Edwin Hubble. Among his notable discoveries is that the universe we live in is both enormous and expanding. This episode takes us on a journey through the life and times of the person whose name graces one of the most significant scientific instruments ever built.
The Beginning of Everything -- The Big Bang
How did everything get started? Has the universe a beginning or was it here since forever? Well, evidence suggests that there was indeed a starting point to this universe we are part of right now. But how can this be? How can something come from nothing? And what about time? We don't have all the answers yet so let's talk about what we know. Also, we try to make this one not depressing. Tell us if we succeeded. BY THE WAY. We have a website now. We'll try to blog from time to time, show you guys how we make the videos and give more insight to our process. Also we sell stuff. We really don't know where this whole kurzgesagt stuff leads us. But we are really thankful for all the attention and positive feedback and yeah, maybe we can make this our jobs -- it would be pretty nice and we could do more content each month. But we'll see. For now, thank you very much everybody for making this little adventure possible. www.Kurzgesagt.org Support us on Patreon so we can make more videos (and get cool stuff in return): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Steady: https://steadyhq.com/de/kurzgesagt
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Thomas did an aweful good job again. 🙂 Next Video: April. (as soon as we can but we kind of have to make a living and visit college) Topic: Nuclear Energy (probably, if we finish the research in time -- if not something else) Short videos, explaining things. For example Evolution, the Universe, Time, the Stock Exchange or controversial topics like Fracking. Because we love science. We're a bunch of Information designers from munich, visit us on our website, twitter, facebook or behance to say hi! The Beginning of Everything -- The Big Bang Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
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Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble Edwin Hubble was born to Virginia Lee James and John Powell Hubble, an insurance
executive, in Marshfield, Missouri, and moved to Wheaton, Illinois, in 1900.
In his younger days, he was noted more for his athletic prowess than his
intellectual abilities, although he did earn good grades in every subject except
for spelling. Edwin was a gifted athlete playing baseball, football, basketball,
and he ran track in both high school and college. He played a variety of
positions on the basketball court from center to shooting guard. In fact Hubble
even led the University of Chicago 's basketball team to their first conference
title in 1907. He won seven first places and a third place in a single high
school track and field meet in 1906. That year he also set the state high school
record for the high jump in Illinois. Another of his personal interests was dry-fly
fishing, and he practiced amateur boxing as well. His studies at the University of Chicago were concentrated on mathematics,
astronomy and philosophy, which led to a bachelor of science degree in 1910.
Hubble also became a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity (and in 1948 was named
the Kappa Sigma "Man of the Year"). He spent the three years at The Queen's
College, Oxford after earning his bachelors as one of the university's first
Rhodes Scholars, initially studying jurisprudence instead of science (as a
promise to his dying father), and later added literature and Spanish,
and earning his master's degree.
How Far Away Is It - 11 - Andromeda and the Local Group (1080p) see update
(Newer version at http://youtu.be/IhP1GnAvm0w) Text at http://howfarawayisit.com/documents/ In this segment of our "How far away is it" video book, we cover the Andromeda galaxy along with our local group of galaxies, including some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. We begin with Edwin Hubble's discovery of a Cepheid variable star in what was thought to be a Milky Way nebula. The star was V1 and it changed the history of astronomy. We cover the black hole at the center of Andromeda, highlight the size of this beautiful galaxy with its trillion stars, and point out what was going on here on our planet when the light we see left Andromeda on its journey into our telescopes. Next we identify the local group of galaxies including: Triangulum with its great star birth H II region NGC 604; irregular galaxy NGC 6822 with its unique Hubble V H II region; the recently discovered galaxy IC 10; nearly edge on galaxy NGC 3109; and Sextans A. Then we focus on the two main galaxies orbiting the Milky Way -- the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud. Then we take a look at some of the amazing nebula within these two dwarf galaxies including: Supernova Remnant N 63A, SN 0509-67.5, the Tarantula Nebula, 30 Doradus, Hodge 301, the Double Bubble, LH 95, NGC 2074, NGC 602, and NGC 346. We conclude with a review of the galaxies we covered marked on a map of the Local Group. STEM
Edwin Hubble ~ The Expanding Universe
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century. Hubble is known for showing that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the earth, implying the Universe is expanding. Known as "Hubble's law", this relation had been discovered previously by Georges Lemaître, a Belgian priest/astronomer who published his work in a less visible journal. There is still much controversy surrounding the issue, and some argue that it should be referred to as "Lemaître's law", although this change has not taken hold in the astronomy community. The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. This is different from other examples of expansions and explosions in that, as far as observations can ascertain, it is a property of the entirety of the universe rather than a phenomenon that can be contained and observed from the outside.
A Science Odyssey: Mysteries of the Universe - Documentary
Part 2 of 5 - Complete serie A Science Odyssey here http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0VcnQ92XNVZARYYmvR7XSKJ2T3KeoWwR Subtitle available
Biography - HE - Edwin Hubble Changed Our Ideas About the Universe -
Edwin Hubble Changed Our Ideas About the Universe and Its Birth
EXPLORATIONS -- a program in Special English by the Voice of America. Today, Richard Rael and Tony Riggs tell the story of American astronomer Edwin Hubble. He changed our ideas about the universe and how it developed. Edwin Hubble made his most important discoveries in the nineteen twenties. Today, other astronomers continue the work he began. Many of them are using the Hubble Space Telescope that is named after him.
Edwin Powell Hubble was born in eighteen eighty-nine in Marshfield, Missouri. He spent his early years in the state of Kentucky. Then he moved with his family to Chicago, Illinois. He attended the University of Chicago. He studied mathematics and astronomy.
Hubble was a good student. He was a good athlete, too. He was a member of the University of Chicago championship basketball team in nineteen-oh-nine. He also was an excellent boxer. Several people urged him to train for the world heavyweight boxing championship after college. Instead, he decided to continue his studies. He went to Queen's College at Oxford, England.
At Oxford, Hubble studied law. He was interested in British Common Law, because his family had come to America from England many years before. He spent three years at Oxford.
In nineteen thirteen, Hubble returned to the United States. He opened a law office in Louisville, Kentucky. After a short time, however, he decided he did not want to be a lawyer. He returned to the University of Chicago. There, once again, he studied astronomy.
Hubble watched the night sky with instruments at the university's Yerkes Observatory. His research involved a major question astronomers could not answer: What are nebulae?
The astronomical term "nebulae," Hubble explained, had come down through the centuries. It was the name given to permanent, cloudy areas in the sky outside our solar system. Some astronomers thought nebulae were part of our Milky Way galaxy. Others thought they were island universes farther away in space. In his research paper, Hubble said the issue could be decided only by more powerful instruments. And those instruments had not yet been developed. In nineteen seventeen, the United States was fighting in World War One in Europe. Edwin Hubble joined the American army and served in France.
Earlier, astronomer George Ellery Hale had offered Hubble a position at the Mount Wilson Observatory in Southern California. When Hubble returned to the United States after World War One, he accepted Hale's offer. Hubble was thirty years old. He was just beginning the work that would make him famous.
In his first observations from Mount Wilson, Hubble used a telescope with a mirror one hundred fifty-two centimeters across. He studied objects within our own galaxy. And he made an important discovery about nebulae.
Hubble said the light that appeared to come from nebulae really came from stars near the nebulae. The nebulae, he said, were clouds of atoms and dust. They were not hot enough -- like stars -- to give off light.
Soon after, Hubble began working with a larger and more powerful telescope at Mount Wilson. Its mirror was two hundred fifty centimeters across. It was the most powerful telescope in the world for twenty-five years. It had the power Hubble needed to make his major discoveries. From nineteen twenty-two on, Edwin Hubble began examining more and more distant objects. His first great discovery was made when he recognized a Cepheid variable star. It was in the outer area of the great nebula called Andromeda. Cepheid variable stars are stars whose brightness changes at regular periods.
An astronomer at Harvard College, Henrietta Leavitt, had discovered that these periods of brightness could be used to measure the star's distance from Earth. Hubble made the measurements. They showed that the Andromeda nebula lay far outside our Milky Way Galaxy.
Hubble's Heritage - Professor Ian Morison
The lecture will consider the legacy of both Edwin Hubble and the Space Telescope that bears his name - from Hubble's discovery of the expanding universe to the observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope that have, over the last two decades, given us new insights into our Universe. The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:
http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/hubble%E2%80%99s-heritage Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website.
The Edwin Hubble-Red-Shift-Big-Bang-in-English-Accent Rap
Edwin Hubble provided the experimental evidence for an expanding universe. He used doppler shift measurements of the light from distant stars to show the relationship between a star's distance and the rate at which it is receding from us. also check www.sciencerapper.com Lyrics: Intro: Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer who first noted the relationship between a stars distance and the rate at which it is receding from us. This relationship, the Hubble Constant, provides evidence that the universe is expanding, allows for theories of whether the universe will continue to expand, and suggests that our current universe must have started as a dense mass 13 billion years ago - and that it was kick started with a bang. ----- Hubble here but please call me Ed
My discoveries outlive me in your in your head
i used wake up when you go to bed
through the telescope the night sky i tread
train my scope on the most distant galaxies
so faint so faint the bare eye cannot see
yet I capture light from the star-break it apart
spectral analysis is where i've made my mark
see red-shifted lines in absorption spectra
calculate velocity shift of stars- AH bless ya!
its made possible using Einstein's laws
we observe that the stare are receding PAUSE
from a bit of light you know from us the stars are fading
my dear old Edwin you must be crazy
I'm stark raving mad for what do i see
the further the star the greater the velocity
the universe it seems to be expanding
computers make these calculations non-demanding
using a stars mass and the laws of gravity
we back calculate each stars trajectories
but i'm not done - i've got a bigger impact
I looked back in time using current rates and mass
If the universe is expanding at a given rate
can we back calculate to find the date
at which time all the mass was compressed
13 billion years is the date that fits best
it was then that began the shot that rang
round the universe - we call it the big bang. from redshifted light get the constant hubble
see the universe as an expanding bubble
backward in time the bubble does shrink
to a point mass that represents the brink
of knowledge, perhaps what can be known
we live in a most mysterious home
with keen insight and vision we may see
into deep space beyond human mortality
of fundamental rules of physics, of dark matter
of galactic cores seen with clever light patterns
though I'm gone i've left with fame
cosmologists will forever know my name
as the old poem asks if we've got enough mass
in which case a fiery crunch will come to pass
or whether our low mass will pay the price
and we will expand forever until we ice outro:
though future physicists will determine the fate of the bubble
you will forever remember the name of Hubble
Biography of Edwin Hubble
Carl Sagan on the Big Bang - Milton Humason & Edwin Hubble
Milton Humason & Edwin Hubble's contributions to the theory of the "Big Bang." This clip comes from Carl Sagan's Cosmos episode 10, "The Edge of Forever."