OTD in Space - Dec. 28: Galileo Spacecraft Sees Auroras on Ganymede
On Dec. 28, 2000, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft discovered auroras on Ganymede, Jupiter’s largest moon. Galileo launched in 1989 on a mission to study Jupiter and its moons. It also flew by Venus and Earth on its way there. The spacecraft flew by Ganymede several times while it was in orbit around Jupiter. During this particular flyby, it was looking for auroras. Ganymede was in Jupiter’s shadow at the time, which made it easier for Galileo to see the faint auroras because there was no sunlight. So Galileo was in the right place at the right time, and it successfully spotted auroras on the moon. The spacecraft has also made other incredible discoveries in Ganymede, like the fact that it has a magnetic field. No other moon was known to have a magnetic field at the time. Galileo even found evidence of a liquid saltwater ocean beneath the moon’s crust and a thin atmosphere.
The Oceans of Ganymede
An exploration into the subsurface oceans of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. www.patreon.com/johnmichaelgodier Papers: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-138 "Ganymede׳s internal structure including thermodynamics of magnesium sulfate oceans in contact with ice", Vance et al, 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032063314000695?via%3Dihub Music: Cylinder Seven by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
The Largest Moon In The Solar System
Jupiter's moon Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a rich and intricate geologic history. Roughly two billion years ago, tectonic forces shifted chunks of the moon’s crust, producing extensive faults and ridges that stretched across its icy plains. Other landforms were created over the past four billion years, including legions of craters formed from bombardment by asteroids, meteoroids and comets. Using images collected by NASA's Voyager and Galileo spacecraft, scientists examined nearly every square mile of Ganymede—a sphere bigger than the planet Mercury—and generated a color-coded map that visualizes the age and type of material found on its surface. Watch the video to see a colorful new view of this distant world. The new map will provide insights into the events and processes that shaped how Ganymede looks today. Learn more about Ganymede at http://www.spacetv.net/ganymede-jupiter-moon/ Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center / USGS Astrogeology Science Center/Wheaton/ASU/NASA/JPL-Caltech
TBS Archive - Jovian Moon Dance - Io and Ganymede - Speedlapse approx 3 hours
This is a clip I created a little over a year ago.. just found it in the archive and decided to release it, cause why not? It's about 2-3 hours of tracking Jupiter and it's moons on the Nexstar8 and Sony a6000. I didn't note it in the video, but I have it playing 3 times in a row, each at different speeds. Rock out!
Terraforming Callisto and Ganymede in Universe Sandbox 2
10 Moons People Can Actually Live On
One day it will be an amazing scientific accomplishment when we colonize and bring life to a moon like Saturn's icy Enceladus. Subscribe for new videos weekly! 5. Triton
Photographs and data sent back from the Voyager 2 spacecraft back in August of 1989 showed that the surface of Triton, Neptune’s largest moon, was made up of nitrogen ice and rock. The suspicion of liquid water being hidden beneath the surface was raised. Even though the moon has an atmosphere, it would be pretty much the same as if it didn’t have one because of how thin it is. The average temperature on the moon is an unbelievable -391 degrees Fahrenheit, making it the coldest body in the entirety of our solar system. 4. Mimas
Also known as the “Death Star” moon and for good reason. Mimas is one of Saturn’s icy and rocky moons. Mimas might have an ocean located beneath its cold and unwelcoming -looking surface, which may possibly be better adapted for life. Close study of the Cassini footage by scientists shows that Mimas looks to rock back and forth as it went around on its orbit. This could imply activity underneath its surface. However, scientists were very wary with what they found, stating that there hadn’t been any other signs that point to geological activity. They merely stated that if an ocean was discovered, the moon could definitely be a candidate for being colonized. It’s believed that the theoretical ocean would be about 15 to 18 miles below the surface. If the rocking movement that supports this theory of an ocean proves to be false, then the movement is mostly likely because of a misshapen core due to the strong gravitational pull caused by Saturn’s rings 3. Callisto
Exactly the same size as the planet Mercury, Callisto is Jupiter’s second largest moon that looks like it has a large liquid ocean hidden within its icy surface. The surface of Callisto mainly made up of craters and what are basically fields of ice. Callisto also has a relatively thin atmosphere consisting of carbon dioxide. Research that already been performed has suggested that this atmosphere is being filled up again and again by carbon dioxide that is released from below the surface because it is too thin to stay in place. Collected data implies the chance that oxygen could also be actively present inside of the atmosphere, but there would need to be further tests to confirm if this theory holds true. Callisto is positioned in a safe enough space from Jupiter that the giant planet’s radiation levels would be very mild. 2. Ganymede
Ganymede happens to be Jupiter’s largest moon and like other masses, in our solar system, it could potentially prove to have water trapped underneath its surface. If you were to compare it to other ice-covered moons, Ganymede’s surface is believed to be relatively thin and should be much easier to break through. This moon also happens to be the only moon with its own gravitational field that creates its own auroras, like the ones that are produced here on earth. Their pattern in movement also leads scientists to theorize there is an ocean trapped underneath the surface. Because of Ganymede’s thin oxygen atmosphere, it is too thin to support our life but maybe enough to support terraforming. Back in 2012, the European Space Agency got the okay to go ahead and launch a mission to go and explore Ganymede and two other of Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto. The operation is scheduled to launch in 2022 and reach the moon 10 years later. Out of the three moons to be explored, scientists believe that Ganymede will have the best environment to study and potentially support life, if possible.
1. The Moon
The first moon that mankind would colonate would, of course, be the earth’s very own moon. It’s been described as a good “dress rehearsal” for potential colonization missions in the future because of how close it is to earth compared to all the other moons. Earlier in March of this year, there was a story that was going around that this type of operation could be carried out within the next 10 years or so. NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay is one of the individuals whose onboard with making this mission come to fruition. His opinion is that other missions to the moon have failed because of the high cost, but his team has a plan that requires little compared to previous missions. Although NASA’s current focus is to get humans to land on Mars, McKay says that that won’t come to light until they can first get to the moon and set up permanent bases there first.
Jupiter animation : Transit of Io and Ganymede and their shadows
This is an animation of a double transit of 2 satellites (moons) of Jupiter : Io and Ganymede. Their shadows are also cleraly visible on the planet.
Captured using a telescope Skywatcher 150/750 on a Neq3-2 mount and a webcam Logitech C270
No impact was detected over Jupiter.
16-04-2016 from Tunis, Tunisia
Jupiter 2016/03/16 - Double transit and shadow of Io and Ganymede.
Telescope Meade LX200 16" ACF
Double Transit on Jupiter (Io-Ganymede) 16 March 2016
20h45 -21h45 UT Mornag Tunisia
Newton Skywatcher BD 150/750mm
Barlow x2 ultima celestron
Firecapture, AS!2, Registax6, Virtualdub
Io and Ganymede cast their shadows on Jupiter
Shot with a Canon SX220HS afocally through an eyepiece in my 11cm Newton.
Could There Be Life Under Ganymede's Icy Crust?
During the Galileo probe's exploration of Jupiter and its moons, readings of Ganymede's magnetic field appeared to support theories that a vast ocean is hidden beneath the icy crust of the large moon. Recent studies conducted by the Hubble Space Telescope have provided additional data to support the idea that large amounts of liquid water lie beneath the surface. Is it possible that life could dwell in these dark seas? Where would we most likely find it? NASA'S UNEXPLAINED FILES
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Jupiter's Moons: Crash Course Astronomy #17
Before moving on from Jupiter to Saturn, we’re going to linger for a moment on Jupiter’s moons. There are 67 known moons, and 4 huge ones that we want to explore in greater detail. Ganymede is the largest - larger, in fact, than any other moon in the solar system and the planet Mercury! Callisto, orbiting the farthest out, is smaller but quite similar to Ganymede in many ways. Io, meanwhile, is most noteworthy for its tremendous volcanic activity. There’s also water on Ganymede and Europa! This episode was brought to you by Squarespace http://www.squarespace.com/crashcourse
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-- Table of Contents
Jupiter Has 67 Moons (4 Big Ones) 0:12
Ganymede is the Largest 1:15
Io is Riddled With Volcanoes 3:16
Europa Has an Undersurface Ocean 4:48
Io, Europa, and Ganymede Interact Gravitationally 3:48
Known Unknowns 8:06 -- PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Follow Phil on Twitter: https://twitter.com/badastronomer Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
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Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse -- PHOTO/VIDEO SOURCES
Galileo’s notebook http://hos.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbid=4 [credit: Image(s) courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries; copyright the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.]
Jupiter’s moons http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA00600.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Ganymede http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011100/a011173/Image4_1920x1080.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk]
Interior of Ganymede https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PIA00519_Interior_of_Ganymede.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Ganymede terrain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ganymede_terrain.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Artist Conception of Ganymede http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubbles-view-of-ganymede-briefing-materials/ (Figure 5) [credit: NASA/ESA]
Callisto http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA03456.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Interior of Callisto https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callisto_(moon)#/media/File:PIA01478_Interior_of_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Valhalla crater on Callisto https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valhalla_crater_on_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA / JPL]
Io http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s1-1920.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/USGS]
Io volcano image http://solarviews.com/browse/jup/ioplumedisc.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL]
Io eruption video http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/IO_Eruption-540-MASTER_high.mp4 [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Io surface http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s2-1204.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona]
Jupiter Magnetosphere Schema https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Io_(moon)#/media/File:Jupiter_magnetosphere_schematic.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / Volcanopele]
Jupiter aurora http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/images/large/heic0009a.jpg [credit: NASA, ESA & John T. Clarke (Univ. of Michigan)]
Europa http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA19048.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute]
Europa ocean http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/1205/EuropasOcean_KPHand003.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Kevin Hand
Habitable zone diagram http://www.keckobservatory.org/images/made/images/gallery/solar_system/Slides-8_1800_1350.jpg [credit: PETIGURA/UC BERKELEY, HOWARD/UH-MANOA, MARCY/UC BERKELEY]
Amalthea http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA02532.jpg [c redit: NASA/JPL/Cornell University]
Water on Ganymede, and NASA Needs Your Help!
Which is a bigger deal to you? The discovery that there’s probably more water on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede than all the oceans on Earth? Or the fact that you can now help NASA find asteroids? Learn about both, then decide for yourself! http://www.topcoder.com/asteroids/asteroiddatahunter/ ----------
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NASA Finds Vast Ocean on Jupiter's Moon Ganymede
NASA announced that it has evidence that Jupiter’s moon Ganymede, the largest moon in our solar system, has a vast ocean lurking underneath its icy crust. WSJ's Monika Auger reports. Photo: USGS/Wheaton/NASA/JPL-Caltech Subscribe to the WSJ channel here:
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Jupiter's Moon Ganymede
This is a video clip of what Ganymede looks like, based on images from NASA's Galileo orbiter. The US Geological Survey has classified the surface of Ganymede into the types of terrain. The brown regions are those that are heavily cratered and much older than the light shaded regions that are smoother with few craters. These lighter shaded regions are believed to be formed by flooding of the surface with water coming from faults or even cryo-volcanos that have taken place over billions of years. Perhaps even tectonic processes are at work with some crustal ice sheets being forced downward by the emergence of newer icy material. Over 8 years at Jupiter Galileo spacecraft made 6 close flyby of the Ganymede and detected a magnetic field coming from the moon itself. In addition, the best models of Ganymede from the Galileo data showed a deep ocean under a thick ice crust. Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system and the only moon with its own magnetic field. The magnetic field causes aurorae, which are ribbons of glowing, hot electrified gas, in regions circling the north and south poles of the moon. Because Ganymede is close to Jupiter, it is also embedded in Jupiter’s magnetic field. When Jupiter’s magnetic field changes, the aurorae on Ganymede also change, 'rocking' back and forth. By watching the rocking motion of the two aurorae, scientists were able to determine that a large amount of saltwater exists beneath Ganymede’s crust affecting its magnetic field.
Jupiter's moon Ganymede could have ocean with more water than Earth
NASA has announced that Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, has a saltwater ocean under its icy surface. Report by Claire Lomas.
Ganymede's underground ocean suggested by Hubble observations
Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon, had been long predicted to have an underground ocean and observations with Hubble Space Telescope found the best evidence so far. By monitoring aurorae glowing above Ganymede's surface, researchers traced the moon's magnetic field. Observations suggest a large amount of saltwater beneath Ganymede's crust, affecting its magnetic field. The ocean is estimated to be buried under a 150 kilometer crust of mostly ice and have a depth of 100 kilometers. Credit:
Joachim Saur, Stefan Duling, Lorenz Roth, Xianzhe Jia, Darrell F. Strobel, Paul D. Feldman, Ulrich R. Christensen, Kurt D. Retherford, Melissa A. McGrath, Fabrizio Musacchio, Alexandre Wennmacher, Fritz M. Neubauer, Sven Simon, Oliver Hartkorn. The Search for a Subsurface Ocean in Ganymede with Hubble Space Telescope Observations of its Auroral Ovals. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2015; DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020778
NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)
NASA, ESA, and J. Saur (University of Cologne, Germany)
NASA, JPL, and the Galileo Project
NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)
Jupiter's Moon Ganymede
This is a video clip of what Ganymede looks like, based on images from NASA's Galileo orbiter. The US Geological Survey has classified the surface of Ganymede into the types of terrain. The brown regions are those that are heavily cratered and much older than the light shaded regions that are smoother with few craters. These lighter shaded regions are believed to be formed by flooding of the surface with water coming from faults or even cryo-volcanos that have taken place over billions of years. Perhaps even tectonic processes are at work with some crustal ice sheets being forced downward by the emergence of newer icy material. Over 8 years at Jupiter Galileo spacecraft made 6 close flyby of the Ganymede and detected a magnetic field coming from the moon itself. In addition, the best models of Ganymede from the Galileo data showed a deep ocean under a thick ice crust.
Credit: NASA, USGS
Ganymede /ˈɡænɨmiːd/ (Jupiter III) is a satellite of Jupiter and the largest moon in the Solar System. It is the seventh moon and third Galilean satellite outward from Jupiter. Completing an orbit in roughly seven days, Ganymede participates in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively. It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi), 8% larger than that of the planet Mercury, but has only 45% of the latter's mass. Its diameter is 2% larger than that of Saturn's Titan, the second largest moon. It also has the highest mass of all planetary satellites, with 2.02 times the mass of the Earth's moon.
Ganymede is composed of approximately equal amounts of silicate rock and water ice. It is a fully differentiated body with an iron-rich, liquid core, and it might have ice and oceans stacked up in several layers. Its surface is composed of two main types of terrain. Dark regions, saturated with impact craters and dated to four billion years ago, cover about a third of the satellite. Lighter regions, crosscut by extensive grooves and ridges and only slightly less ancient, cover the remainder. The cause of the light terrain's disrupted geology is not fully known, but was likely the result of tectonic activity brought about by tidal heating. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution:
Article text available under CC-BY-SA
Creative Commons image source in video