Jupiter's Galilean Moons
The Galilean moons of Jupiter are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto and they are amazing icy worlds of the outer solar system!
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Space Sparks Episode 7
Watch this Space Sparks episode to learn about how an astronomer has found evidence of water in Europa's trailing atmosphere.
More information and download options: http://esahubble.org/videos/heic2111a/
Directed by: Bethany Downer and Nico Bartmann
Editing: Nico Bartmann
Web and technical support: Enciso Systems
Written by: Bethany Downer
Music: STAN DART – Organic Life (Music written and performed by STAN DART)
Footage and photos: ESA/Hubble, ESA, NASA, N. Bartmann, JPL-Caltech, SwRI, MSSS, J. da Silva
Hubble Finds Evidence of Water Vapor at Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede
Astronomers have used new and archival datasets from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to uncover evidence of water vapor in the atmosphere of Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.
The vapor is present due to the thermal excitation of water molecules from the moon’s icy surface.
Previous research has offered circumstantial evidence for the moon containing more water than all of Earth's oceans. However, temperatures there are so cold that water on the surface freezes and the ocean lies roughly 100 miles below the crust.
For more information, visit https://nasa.gov/hubble.
Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Paul Morris: Lead Producer
Andrea Gianopoulos: Science Writer
Tracy Vogel: Science Writer Additional Credits:
Artist’s Impression of Ganymede: Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Garlick
Artist’s Impression of a Sublimated Water Atmosphere on Ganymede: Credit: ESA/Hubble, J. daSilva
NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Observation of Ganymede in June 2021
Video Artist’s Impression of Ganymede: Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Garlick
Ganymede Spinning Globe: Credit: USGS Astrogeology Science Center Music Credits:
"Mysterious Discoveries" by Bertrand Allagnat [SACEM] via Koka Media [SACEM], Universal Production Music France [SACEM], and Universal Production Music.
This video can be freely shared and downloaded at https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13892 . While the video in its entirety can be shared without permission, individual imagery provided by ESA (the European Space Agency) is obtained through permission. Their own media guidelines must be adhered to in its use. The music and some individual imagery may have been obtained through permission and may not be excised or remixed in other products. Specific details on such imagery may be found here: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13892 . For more information on NASA’s media guidelines, visit https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/guidelines/index.html. See more Hubble videos on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLiuUQ9asub3Ta8mqP5LNiOhOygRzue8kN
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Juno Flies Past the Moon Ganymede and Jupiter, With Music by Vangelis
On June 7, 2021, NASA’s Juno spacecraft flew closer to Jupiter’s ice-encrusted moon Ganymede than any spacecraft in more than two decades. Less than a day later, Juno made its 34th flyby of Jupiter. This animation provides a “starship captain” point of view of each flyby. For both worlds, JunoCam images were orthographically projected onto a digital sphere and used to create the flyby animation. Synthetic frames were added to provide views of approach and departure for both Ganymede and Jupiter.
Visit http://www.nasa.gov/juno & http://missionjuno.swri.edu to learn more.
Animation: Koji Kuramura, Gerald Eichstädt, Mike Stetson
Producer: Scott J. Bolton
Jupiter's Moons May Keep Each Other Warm
This episode is sponsored by Awesome Socks Club, a sock subscription for charity. Go to http://awesomesocks.club to sign up between now and December 11th to get a new pair of fun socks each month in 2021. 100% of after-tax profit will go to decrease maternal and child mortality in Sierra Leone, which is one of the most dangerous places to be pregnant in the world.
As small as Jupiter's moons are in comparison to the giant planet, they may actually have an important role to play in keeping each other warm, heating the moons enough to have liquid oceans!
Hosted by: Reid Reimers
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Interview with Hamish Hay, planetary scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
The Oceans of Ganymede
An exploration into the subsurface oceans of Jupiter's moon Ganymede.
"Ganymede׳s internal structure including thermodynamics of magnesium sulfate oceans in contact with ice", Vance et al, 2014
Cylinder Seven by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
The Largest Moon In The Solar System
Jupiter's moon Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a rich and intricate geologic history. Roughly two billion years ago, tectonic forces shifted chunks of the moon’s crust, producing extensive faults and ridges that stretched across its icy plains. Other landforms were created over the past four billion years, including legions of craters formed from bombardment by asteroids, meteoroids and comets. Using images collected by NASA's Voyager and Galileo spacecraft, scientists examined nearly every square mile of Ganymede—a sphere bigger than the planet Mercury—and generated a color-coded map that visualizes the age and type of material found on its surface. Watch the video to see a colorful new view of this distant world.
The new map will provide insights into the events and processes that shaped how Ganymede looks today.
Learn more about Ganymede at http://www.spacetv.net/ganymede-jupiter-moon/
Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center / USGS Astrogeology Science Center/Wheaton/ASU/NASA/JPL-Caltech
TBS Archive - Jovian Moon Dance - Io and Ganymede - Speedlapse approx 3 hours
This is a clip I created a little over a year ago.. just found it in the archive and decided to release it, cause why not? It's about 2-3 hours of tracking Jupiter and it's moons on the Nexstar8 and Sony a6000. I didn't note it in the video, but I have it playing 3 times in a row, each at different speeds. Rock out!
Terraforming Callisto and Ganymede in Universe Sandbox 2
10 Moons People Can Actually Live On
One day it will be an amazing scientific accomplishment when we colonize and bring life to a moon like Saturn's icy Enceladus.
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Photographs and data sent back from the Voyager 2 spacecraft back in August of 1989 showed that the surface of Triton, Neptune’s largest moon, was made up of nitrogen ice and rock. The suspicion of liquid water being hidden beneath the surface was raised. Even though the moon has an atmosphere, it would be pretty much the same as if it didn’t have one because of how thin it is. The average temperature on the moon is an unbelievable -391 degrees Fahrenheit, making it the coldest body in the entirety of our solar system.
Also known as the “Death Star” moon and for good reason. Mimas is one of Saturn’s icy and rocky moons. Mimas might have an ocean located beneath its cold and unwelcoming -looking surface, which may possibly be better adapted for life. Close study of the Cassini footage by scientists shows that Mimas looks to rock back and forth as it went around on its orbit. This could imply activity underneath its surface. However, scientists were very wary with what they found, stating that there hadn’t been any other signs that point to geological activity. They merely stated that if an ocean was discovered, the moon could definitely be a candidate for being colonized. It’s believed that the theoretical ocean would be about 15 to 18 miles below the surface. If the rocking movement that supports this theory of an ocean proves to be false, then the movement is mostly likely because of a misshapen core due to the strong gravitational pull caused by Saturn’s rings
Exactly the same size as the planet Mercury, Callisto is Jupiter’s second largest moon that looks like it has a large liquid ocean hidden within its icy surface. The surface of Callisto mainly made up of craters and what are basically fields of ice. Callisto also has a relatively thin atmosphere consisting of carbon dioxide. Research that already been performed has suggested that this atmosphere is being filled up again and again by carbon dioxide that is released from below the surface because it is too thin to stay in place. Collected data implies the chance that oxygen could also be actively present inside of the atmosphere, but there would need to be further tests to confirm if this theory holds true. Callisto is positioned in a safe enough space from Jupiter that the giant planet’s radiation levels would be very mild.
Ganymede happens to be Jupiter’s largest moon and like other masses, in our solar system, it could potentially prove to have water trapped underneath its surface. If you were to compare it to other ice-covered moons, Ganymede’s surface is believed to be relatively thin and should be much easier to break through. This moon also happens to be the only moon with its own gravitational field that creates its own auroras, like the ones that are produced here on earth. Their pattern in movement also leads scientists to theorize there is an ocean trapped underneath the surface. Because of Ganymede’s thin oxygen atmosphere, it is too thin to support our life but maybe enough to support terraforming. Back in 2012, the European Space Agency got the okay to go ahead and launch a mission to go and explore Ganymede and two other of Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto. The operation is scheduled to launch in 2022 and reach the moon 10 years later. Out of the three moons to be explored, scientists believe that Ganymede will have the best environment to study and potentially support life, if possible.
1. The Moon
The first moon that mankind would colonate would, of course, be the earth’s very own moon. It’s been described as a good “dress rehearsal” for potential colonization missions in the future because of how close it is to earth compared to all the other moons. Earlier in March of this year, there was a story that was going around that this type of operation could be carried out within the next 10 years or so. NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay is one of the individuals whose onboard with making this mission come to fruition. His opinion is that other missions to the moon have failed because of the high cost, but his team has a plan that requires little compared to previous missions. Although NASA’s current focus is to get humans to land on Mars, McKay says that that won’t come to light until they can first get to the moon and set up permanent bases there first.
Jupiter animation : Transit of Io and Ganymede and their shadows
This is an animation of a double transit of 2 satellites (moons) of Jupiter : Io and Ganymede. Their shadows are also cleraly visible on the planet.
Captured using a telescope Skywatcher 150/750 on a Neq3-2 mount and a webcam Logitech C270
No impact was detected over Jupiter.
16-04-2016 from Tunis, Tunisia
Jupiter 2016/03/16 - Double transit and shadow of Io and Ganymede.
Telescope Meade LX200 16" ACF
Double Transit on Jupiter (Io-Ganymede) 16 March 2016
20h45 -21h45 UT Mornag Tunisia
Newton Skywatcher BD 150/750mm
Barlow x2 ultima celestron
Firecapture, AS!2, Registax6, Virtualdub
Io and Ganymede cast their shadows on Jupiter
Shot with a Canon SX220HS afocally through an eyepiece in my 11cm Newton.
Could There Be Life Under Ganymede's Icy Crust?
During the Galileo probe's exploration of Jupiter and its moons, readings of Ganymede's magnetic field appeared to support theories that a vast ocean is hidden beneath the icy crust of the large moon. Recent studies conducted by the Hubble Space Telescope have provided additional data to support the idea that large amounts of liquid water lie beneath the surface. Is it possible that life could dwell in these dark seas? Where would we most likely find it?
NASA'S UNEXPLAINED FILES
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Jupiter's Moons: Crash Course Astronomy #17
Before moving on from Jupiter to Saturn, we’re going to linger for a moment on Jupiter’s moons. There are 67 known moons, 4 of which are the huge ones that we want to explore in greater detail. Ganymede is the largest - larger, in fact, than any other moon in the solar system and the planet Mercury! Callisto, orbiting the farthest out, is smaller but quite similar to Ganymede in many ways. Io, meanwhile, is most noteworthy for its tremendous volcanic activity. There’s also water on Ganymede and Europa!
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Introduction: Jupiter's Moons 00:00
Ganymede: Jupiter's Largest Moon 1:15
Callisto: Jupiter's Second Largest Moon 2:15
Io: Volcanoes! 2:59
Europa: The Ocean Moon 4:48
The Habitable Zone 7:05
Jupiter's Other Moons 7:49
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Galileo’s notebook http://hos.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbid=4 [credit: Image(s) courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries; copyright the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.]
Jupiter’s moons http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA00600.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Ganymede http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011100/a011173/Image4_1920x1080.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk]
Interior of Ganymede https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PIA00519_Interior_of_Ganymede.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Ganymede terrain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ganymede_terrain.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Artist Conception of Ganymede http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubbles-view-of-ganymede-briefing-materials/ (Figure 5) [credit: NASA/ESA]
Callisto http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA03456.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Interior of Callisto https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callisto_(moon)#/media/File:PIA01478_Interior_of_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Valhalla crater on Callisto https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valhalla_crater_on_Callisto.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA / JPL]
Io http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s1-1920.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/USGS]
Io volcano image http://solarviews.com/browse/jup/ioplumedisc.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL]
Io eruption video http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/IO_Eruption-540-MASTER_high.mp4 [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Io surface http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011400/a011455/s2-1204.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona]
Jupiter Magnetosphere Schema https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Io_(moon)#/media/File:Jupiter_magnetosphere_schematic.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons / Volcanopele]
Jupiter aurora http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/images/large/heic0009a.jpg [credit: NASA, ESA & John T. Clarke (Univ. of Michigan)]
Europa http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA19048.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute]
Europa ocean http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/1205/EuropasOcean_KPHand003.jpg [credit: NASA/JPL/Kevin Hand
Habitable zone diagram http://www.keckobservatory.org/images/made/images/gallery/solar_system/Slides-8_1800_1350.jpg [credit: PETIGURA/UC BERKELEY, HOWARD/UH-MANOA, MARCY/UC BERKELEY]
Amalthea http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA02532.jpg [c redit: NASA/JPL/Cornell University]
Water on Ganymede, and NASA Needs Your Help!
Which is a bigger deal to you? The discovery that there’s probably more water on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede than all the oceans on Earth? Or the fact that you can now help NASA find asteroids? Learn about both, then decide for yourself!
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NASA Finds Vast Ocean on Jupiter's Moon Ganymede
NASA announced that it has evidence that Jupiter’s moon Ganymede, the largest moon in our solar system, has a vast ocean lurking underneath its icy crust. WSJ's Monika Auger reports. Photo: USGS/Wheaton/NASA/JPL-Caltech Subscribe to the WSJ channel here:
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Jupiter's moon Ganymede could have ocean with more water than Earth
NASA has announced that Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, has a saltwater ocean under its icy surface. Report by Claire Lomas.
Ganymede's underground ocean suggested by Hubble observations
Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon, had been long predicted to have an underground ocean and observations with Hubble Space Telescope found the best evidence so far. By monitoring aurorae glowing above Ganymede's surface, researchers traced the moon's magnetic field. Observations suggest a large amount of saltwater beneath Ganymede's crust, affecting its magnetic field. The ocean is estimated to be buried under a 150 kilometer crust of mostly ice and have a depth of 100 kilometers.
Joachim Saur, Stefan Duling, Lorenz Roth, Xianzhe Jia, Darrell F. Strobel, Paul D. Feldman, Ulrich R. Christensen, Kurt D. Retherford, Melissa A. McGrath, Fabrizio Musacchio, Alexandre Wennmacher, Fritz M. Neubauer, Sven Simon, Oliver Hartkorn. The Search for a Subsurface Ocean in Ganymede with Hubble Space Telescope Observations of its Auroral Ovals. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2015; DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020778
NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)
NASA, ESA, and J. Saur (University of Cologne, Germany)
NASA, JPL, and the Galileo Project
NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)