We Found The Origins of Mysterious Magnetars - Rare Giant Stars
You can buy Universe Sandbox 2 game here: http://amzn.to/2yJqwU6 Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about how magnetars are probably formed and what effects they have in general.
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Pulsars and Magnetars
If you’ve ever heard of the phrase two sides of the same coin, you know it means two things that at first appear to be unrelated are actually parts of the same thing. Now, a fundamental example can be found in the deep recesses of space in the form of a neutron star. A neutron star comes from a large star that has run out of fuel, and exploded as a supernova. As gravity forces the star to collapse to the size of a small city, the star becomes so dense that a single teaspoon of the collapsed star would have as much mass as a mountain. The star’s core, now a neutron star, can be rotating as fast as 10 times a second or more. Over time the rotation of the core can start speeding up by pulling matter from its surroundings, rotating over 700 times a second!
Some neutron stars, called radio pulsars, have strong magnetic fields and emit radio waves in predictable, reliable pulses. Other neutron stars have even stronger magnetic fields, displaying violent, high-energy outbursts of X-ray and gamma ray light. These are called 'magnetars', and their magnetic fields are the strongest known in the universe, a trillion time stronger than that of our sun. Since the 1970s, scientists have treated pulsars and magnetars as two distinct populations of objects. But in the last decade evidence has emerged that shows they might sometimes be stages in the evolution of a single object. That’s right – a neutron star might just be two sides of the same coin – first it’s a radio pulsar and later becomes a magnetar. Or maybe it’s the other way around. Some scientists argue that objects like magnetars gradually stop emitting X-rays and gamma rays over time. Others propose the opposite theory: that the radio pulsar comes first and then, over time, a magnetic field emerges from the neutron star causing those magnetar-like outbursts to start. Tom Prince is a Professor of Physics at Caltech and a Senior Research Scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He says, “It’s a bit tricky to observe these restless bodies. First, magnetars don’t last long – just a year to a few years, before colossal waves of x-rays dissipate the magnetic energy. Second, pulsars are really quite old by our standards. One of the most famous pulsars, the crab pulsar for example, exploded in the early 1,000’s. Third, it doesn’t happen often. The last known supernova to explode in our vicinity occurred in 1987 in a satellite Galaxy of the Milky Way.” Prince also notes that while a ground based radio telescope observed the first known radio pulsar/ magnetar transition, it’s been NASA’s orbiting telescopes – Fermi, Swift, RXTE, and NuSTAR, along with the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton observatory - that have yielded the most interesting data. Observations have included seismic waves rippling through a magnetar, a cloud of high-energy particles called a wind nebula around a magnetar, and a magnetar that is also the slowest spinning neutron star ever detected! Regardless of which came first, the two sides of these stars have much to teach us about matter at the highest densities and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe.
The Strongest Magnetic Field in the Universe
Hint: It's not your collection of awesome refrigerator magnets! ----------
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What are Magnetars? The Most Magnetic Objects in the Universe
Magnetars are neutron stars with massively boosted magnetic fields. How do this stellar remnants form, and what would happen if you got too close to one? Support us at: http://www.patreon.com/universetoday
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Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tcoZNrSveE In a previous episode, we crushed that idea that the Universe is perfect for life. It’s not. Almost the entire Universe is a horrible and hostile place, apart from a fraction of a mostly harmless planet in a backwater corner of the Milky Way. While living here on Earth takes about 80 years to kill you, there are other places in the Universe at the very other end of the spectrum. Places that would kill you in a fraction of a fraction of a second. And nothing is more lethal than supernovae and remnants they leave behind: neutron stars. We’ve done a few shows about neutron stars and their different flavours, so there should be some familiar terrain here. As you know, neutron stars are formed when stars more massive than our Sun explode as supernovae. When these stars die, they no longer have the light pressure pushing outward to counteract the massive gravity pulling inward. This enormous inward force is so strong that it overcomes the repulsive force that keeps atoms from collapsing. Protons and electrons are forced into the same space, becoming neutrons. The whole thing is just made of neutrons. Did the star have hydrogen, helium, carbon and iron before? That’s too bad, because now it’s all neutrons. You get pulsars when neutron stars first form. When all that former star is compressed into a teeny tiny package. The conservation of angular motion spins the star up to tremendous velocities, sometimes hundreds of times a second. But when neutron stars form, about one in ten does something really really strange, becoming one of the most mysterious and terrifying objects in the Universe. They become magnetars. You’ve probably heard the name, but what are they? As I said, magnetars are neutron stars, formed from supernovae. But something unusual happens as they form, spinning up their magnetic field to an intense level. In fact, astronomers aren’t exactly sure what happens to make them so strong. One idea is that if you get the spin, temperature and magnetic field of a neutron star into a perfect sweet spot, it sets off a dynamo mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field by a factor of a thousand. But a more recent discovery gives a tantalizing clue for how they form. Astronomers discovered a rogue magnetar on an escape trajectory out of the Milky Way. We’ve seen stars like this, and they’re ejected when one star in a binary system detonates as a supernova. In other words, this magnetar used to be part of a binary pair. And while they were partners, the two stars orbited one another closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. This close, they could transfer material back and forth. The larger star began to die first, puffing out and transferring material to the smaller star. This increased mass spun the smaller star up to the point that it grew larger and spewed material back at the first star. The initially smaller star detonated as a supernova first, ejecting the other star into this escape trajectory, and then the second went off, but instead of forming a regular neutron star, all these binary interactions turned it into a magnetar. There you go, mystery maybe solved? The strength of the magnetic field around a magnetar completely boggles the imagination. The magnetic field of the Earth’s core is about 25 gauss, and here on the surface, we experience less than half a gauss. A regular bar magnet is about 100 gauss. Just a regular neutron star has a magnetic field of a trillion gauss. Magnetars are 1,000 times more powerful than that, with a magnetic field of a quadrillion gauss. What if you could get close to a magnetar? Well, within about 1,000 kilometers of a magnetar, the magnetic field is so strong it messes with the electrons in your atoms. You would literally be torn apart at an atomic level. Even the atoms themselves are deformed into rod-like shapes, no longer usable by your precious life’s chemistry. But you wouldn’t notice because you’d already be dead from the intense radiation streaming from the magnetar, and all the lethal particles orbiting the star and trapped in its magnetic field. One of the most fascinating aspects of magnetars is how they can have starquakes. You know, earthquakes, but on stars… starquakes.
7 Terrifying Monsters We Have Discovered in Space
Space is enormous, that means there's plenty of places for planet-eating, time-bending monsters to hide away. Thoughty2 looks at seven of the scariest "monsters" we have found in space.
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Super Star Cluster and its Magnetar - Deep Sky Videos
It's not a Messier Object, but we let Professor Paul Crowther tell us all about Westerlund 1 and its impressive magnetar.
More videos on Messier Objects, including many clusters: http://bit.ly/MessierObjects Deep Sky Videos website: http://www.deepskyvideos.com/
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and The University of Sheffield. Video by Brady Haran
This video edited by James Hennessy
Space Scoop: The Most Attractive Stars in the Universe
Space Scoop: The Most Attractive Stars in the Universe
Astronomers think magnetars may be created when some massive stars die in a supernova explosion. Related Link: http://chandra.si.edu/photo/2014/archives/kids.html More Podcasts: http://chandra.si.edu/resources/podcasts/sd.html
Neutron Stars, Pulsars and Magnetars Explained
The Cosmos is a crazy thing, here are some of its creations...
Hope you liked this time of video! Would you like more of them?
Leave your opinion in the comments below! 😀 Neutron Stars, Pulsars and Magnetars Explained 07.11.2014 Music: "Frozen Star" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Sources: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar - http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetar http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Stars_Neutron_stars_pulsars_and_magnetars http://www.fromquarkstoquasars.com/whats-the-difference-between-pulsars-quasars-and-magnetars/
'Halo' Of Echoing X-rays From Magnetar Outburst | Video
A highly magnetized neutron Star named SGR J1550-5418 erupted with a series of powerful x-ray and gamma-ray flares on Jan 22, 2009. NASA's Swift satellite observed the outburst over the course of 6 days.
Mystery of Magnetar Formation May Now Be Explained | Video
Discovery of runaway companion star points to a mass-exchange during a supernova explosion; weird conditions that lead to the weird, violent object called a magnetar. -- Full Story: http://goo.gl/Xn8xIt
Pulsars, Magnetars, Black Holes (Oh My!): The Wickedly Cool Stellar Undead
The biggest stars burn the fastest and brightest, and when they die, they do so spectacularly, exploding as supernovae and leaving behind some of the most fantastic objects in the universe: neutron stars and black holes. In this public science talk recorded at James Madison University on April 17, 2014, Dr. Scott Ransom (NRAO/UVa) discussed how these crazy objects are created, some of their amazing properties and why we (probably!) don't need to worry about them too much here in our cozy homes on Earth. To learn more about our public science presentations, and to be informed, when our next ones will take place, please visit our website: http://www.jmu.edu/planetarium
A More In Depth Description of Magnetars
Magnetars Have the Most Powerful Magnetic Fields | NASA Space Science
More space news and info at: http://www.coconutsciencelab.com - Magnetars are neutron stars with exceptionally strong magnetic fields. They are some of the most extreme objects known in the Universe. Please rate and comment, thanks! Credit: NASA CXC
Weekly Space Hangout - Aug. 16, 2013: Area 51, Hyperloop, Space Fence, Magnetar, New Nova
Like your space news, but you just can't handle reading any more? Then watch our Weekly Space Hangout, where we give you a rundown of all the big space news stories that broke this week. Host: Fraser Cain Panel: Brian Koberlein, David Dickinson, Nancy Atkinson, Nicole Gugliucci Stories:
CIA Comes Clean About Area 51
Elon Musk's Hyperloop
Space Fence Shut Down
Magnetar Discovered Near the Galactic Core
IAU Updates Their Naming Policy
Bright Nova in Delphinus We record the Weekly Space Hangout every Friday at 12 pm Pacific / 3 pm Eastern as a live Google+ Hangout on Air. Join us live on YouTube, or you can listen to the audio after the fact on the 365 Days of Astronomy Podcast.
Observing Magnetar Flares with Space and Earth Observatories
Observing Magnetar Flares with Space and Earth Observatories