The discovery of pulsars - a graduate student's tale
In this talk I will describe how pulsars were accidentally discovered, and reflect on several instances where they were 'nearly' discovered. I will highlight the implications for new telescopes with high data rates.
Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Magnetars
Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Magnetars are the most extreme objects in the Universe that aren't Black Holes. Their extreme densities make neutron stars the densest solid bodies in the Universe ultra-powerful magnetic fields. When these fields sweep along our line of sight, we see them as Pulsars. Some Pulsars have have extremely strong magnetic fields. We call these objects Magnetars. And when a Magnetar has a star quake, the most violent explosions this side of a Supernova take place. 🔔 Subscribe for more: https://www.youtube.com/christianready?sub_confirmation=1 🖖 Share this video with a fellow space traveler: https://youtu.be/VsliMyrvGDI 🔴 Watch my most recent upload: https://goo.gl/QbRcE2 🚀 Help me improve the channel by joining the community on Patreon
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Did we really find a “habitable” exoplanet? | Night Sky News September 2019
It's Night Sky News time again where we recap everything that's happened in space news this past month and everything to look out for in the sky in the coming month. #stargazing #spacenews #astronomy My new book 'Space: The 10 Things You Should Know' is out now worldwide (except US & Canada) on September 5th 2019! You can pre-order it (UK only) from amazon here: http://bit.ly/SpaceDrBecky News on US & Canadian publication coming soon! Don't forget to subscribe and click the little bell icon to be notified when I post a new video! ------ False dawn - 00:26
Jupiter, Saturn and the Moon - 02:28
Draconids - 03:18
Juno’s snap of Io shadow - 03
Chandrayaan-2 loss - 04:35
The most massive neutron star - 06:11 - Cromartie et al. (2019) - https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.06759.pdf & https://arxiv.org/pdf/1304.6875.pdf
Did we really find a habitable exoplanet in K2-18b? -11:30 - https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.04642.pdf & https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0878-9 --------- Dr. Becky also presents videos on Sixty Symbols: https://www.youtube.com/user/sixtysymbols
and Deep Sky Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/DeepSkyVideos Dr Becky Smethurst is an astrophysicist researching galaxies and supermassive black holes at Christ Church at the University of Oxford. http://drbecky.uk.com
https://rebeccasmethurst.co.uk ------------ News Theme 1 by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
10 Unsettling Astronomical Incidents and Phenomena
An exploration of ten of the most unsettling astrophysical events including Dyson Sphere candidates, a star containing plutonium, the Wow! Signal and others. https://www.patreon.com/johnmichaelgodier https://www.youtube.com/eventhorizonshow Papers: "Pulsar Positioning System: A quest for evidence of extraterrestrial engineering", Clement Vidal, 2017 https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.03316 "Fast Radio Bursts from Extragalactic Light Sails", Lingham and Loeb, 2017 https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.01109 "Discovery of peculiar periodic spectral modulations in a small fraction of solar type stars", Borra and Trottier, 2016 https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.03031 Music: Cylinder Eight by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/ Cylinder Five by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/ "Night Forever" by Miguel Johnson https://migueljohnson.bandcamp.com/ Cylinder Three by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
New Simulation Creates "Pulsar in a Box"
Scientists studying what amounts to a computer-simulated "pulsar in a box" are gaining a more detailed understanding of the complex, high-energy environment around spinning neutron stars, also called pulsars. The model traces the paths of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields near the neutron star, revealing behaviors that may help explain how pulsars emit gamma-ray and radio pulses with ultraprecise timing. A pulsar is the crushed core of a massive star that exploded as a supernova. The core is so compressed that more mass than the Sun's squeezes into a ball no wider than Manhattan Island in New York City. This process also revvs up its rotation and strengthens its magnetic and electric fields. Various physical processes ensure that most of the particles around a pulsar are either electrons or their antimatter counterparts, positrons. To trace the behavior and energies of these particles, the researchers used a comparatively new type of pulsar model called a "particle in cell" (PIC) simulation. The PIC technique lets scientists explore the pulsar from first principles, starting with a spinning, magnetized neutron star. The computer code injects electrons and positrons at the pulsar's surface and tracks how they interact with the electric and magnetic fields. It's computationally intensive because the particle motions affect the fields and the fields affect the particles, and everything is moving near the speed of light. The simulation shows that most of the electrons tend to race outward from the magnetic poles. Some medium-energy electrons scatter wildly, even heading back to the pulsar. The positrons, on the other hand, mostly flow out at lower latitudes, forming a relatively thin structure called the current sheet. In fact, the highest-energy positrons here -- less than 0.1 percent of the total -- are capable of producing gamma rays similar to those detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which has discovered 216 gamma-ray pulsars. The simulation ran on the Discover supercomputer at NASA's Center for Climate Simulation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the Pleiades supercomputer at NASA's Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California. The model actually tracks "macroparticles," each of which represents many trillions of electrons or positrons. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Music: "Reaching for the Horizon" and "Leaving Earth" from Killer Tracks This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13058 If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: http://www.youtube.com/NASAExplorer Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
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John Kirk: Pulsar Winds
John Kirk (Heidelberg) Pulsar Winds Abstract:
Pulsar Winds and the nebulae which they energize (PWN) are among the most enigmatic objects in astrophysics. They consist of a relativistic, magnetized, electron-positron plasma that forms a compact cloud surrounding young pulsars. Their nonthermal synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission is detected from the radio band to very high energy (TeV) gamma-rays, where they are the dominant galactic source population. The radio-to-infrared spectra of PWN are flat, indicating a remarkably efficient particle acceleration mechanism, able to transfer most of the system energy into a tiny fraction of particles. Despite decades of research, the mechanism responsible for accelerating these particles has remained elusive, and poses one of the greatest challenges in particle acceleration theory.
In this talk I will give an introduction to the physics of pulsar winds, and describe recent work on the acceleration mechanisms thought to be at work. These include not only variants of the well-known first-order Fermi mechanism, but also "inductive acceleration", which may explain the mysterious gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula, discovered in 2011 by the Agile and Fermi satellites.
Einstein's Gravity Theory Holds Up In Three-Star System
Scientists understand gravity pretty well when it comes to two objects, but add a third, and you’ve got chaos—a system that’s impossible to explain with our simplest equations. But you also have a way to test the limits of Einstein’s theory of gravity. You’re probably aware of the fact that there are a lot of outstanding questions about our universe—like what is dark energy, what is dark matter, and why can’t one unified physics theory explain both the biggest and smallest objects in the universe?
http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by YT Wochit Tech using http://wochit.com
Astro News Bytes: A Plasma Lensed Pulsar
The wake of gas from its brown dwarf companion has magnified this tiny pulsar for closer scrutiny. You can get the whole story and more at Astronomy.com http://www.astronomy.com/news/2018/05/astronomers-get-a-close-look-at-a-distant-pulsar Astronomy magazine is the world’s best-selling astronomy magazine, offering you the most exciting visually stunning thorough, and timely coverage of the heavens above. Each monthly issue includes expert science reporting, vivid color photography, complete sky-event coverage, spot-on observing tips, informative telescope reviews, and more. Astronomy.com features daily news and weekly observing tips, as well as our Picture of the Day. We also invite you to check out our blogs, podcasts, and more. All of this comes in an easy-to-understand user-friendly style that's perfect for astronomers at any level. Like Astronomy magazine on FACEBOOK:
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OTD in Space – February 24: Pulsars First Discovered
On February 24, 1968, an astronomy grad student Jocelyn Bell announced that she had discovered the first pulsar. A few months earlier, she noticed what she called a "bit of scruff" in the data from her telescope. A signal was sending pulses every 1.3 seconds. At first she and her advisor, Anthony Hewish, thought it could have come from aliens. They ruled out that option when they found another signal coming from a different part of the sky. Bell and Hewish found four pulsars before publishing their findings, but they still had no explanation. Scientists have since figured out that pulsars are rapidly spinning neutron stars that radiate narrow beams of light in opposite directions.
We're Turning Pulsars into Galactic GPS!
Scientists have thought for awhile that pulsars could be used as a sort of galactic positioning system, and astronomers have published the most advanced topographical map of Titan to date! ----------
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Mysterious white dwarf pulsar discovered - SpaceTime with Stuart Gary S20E14
Stream Episodes on demand from www.bitesz.com or www.spacetimewithstuartgary.com (both mobile friendly) *Mysterious white dwarf pulsar discovered
Astronomers have discovered their first white dwarf pulsar. These are a stellar class that has been speculated about for over half a century – but never previously detected.
*Space Junk mission failure
An experimental Japanese mission to help clear space junk from low Earth orbit has failed. The plan involved using a 700 metre long electrodynamic tether to slow bits of space junk down causing the refuse to lose altitude and begin the process of re-entering Earth’s atmosphere.
*Juno’s planned orbital changes dropped
NASA Juno mission will now remain in its existing 53 Earth day orbit around the planet Jupiter -- rather that moving to a lower 14 Earth day orbit as planned. The decision follows problems with two helium check valves on the spacecraft main propulsion system.
*Falcon 9 launch from historic pad
A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket has made history blasting off from Launch Complex 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. That’s the same launch pad previously used by the mighty Saturn V Apollo moon rocket and the space shuttle fleet. For Enhanced Show Notes, including photos to accompany this episode: http://www.bitesz.com/spacetime-show-notes Subscribe, rate and review SpaceTime at all good podcasting apps…including iTunes, audioBoom, Stitcher, Pocketcasts, Podbean, Radio Public, Tunein Radio, google play, etc. RSS feed: https://audioboom.com/channels/4642443.rss NEW: The SpaceTime with Stuart Gary merchandise shop. Get your T-Shirts, Coffee Cups, badges, tote bag + more and help support the show. Check out the range: http://www.cafepress.com/spacetime Thank you. NEW: Help support SpaceTime and get a free audio book of your choice, plus 30 days free access from audible.com. Just visit www.audibletrial.com/spacetime or click on the banner link at www.spacetimewithstuartgary.com Email: [email protected]
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The Lifetime of a Pulsar: Victoria Kaspi at Perimeter Institute
Victoria Kaspi (McGill University) explains the lifespan of neutron stars during her 2016 public lectures at Perimeter Institute, "The Cosmic Gift of Neutron Stars." Watch the full talk: https://youtu.be/6UG9hoeLcHo
Watch more Perimeter public lectures: https://insidetheperimeter.ca/discover/public-lectures/
A Tour of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883
A fast-moving pulsar appears to have punched a hole in a disk of gas around its companion star and launched a fragment of the disk outward at a speed of about 4 million miles per hour.
Fermi Finds First Extragalactic Gamma Ray Pulsar
Researchers using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have discovered the first gamma-ray pulsar in a galaxy other than our own. The object sets a new record for the most luminous gamma-ray pulsar known. The pulsar lies in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that orbits our Milky Way and is located 163,000 light-years away. The Tarantula Nebula is the largest, most active and most complex star-formation region in our galactic neighborhood. It was identified as a bright source of gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light, early in the Fermi mission. Astronomers initially attributed this glow to collisions of subatomic particles accelerated in the shock waves produced by supernova . However, the discovery of gamma-ray pulses from a previously known pulsar named PSR J0540-6919 shows that it is responsible for roughly half of the gamma-ray brightness previously thought to come from the nebula. Gamma-ray pulses from J0540-6919 have 20 times the intensity of the previous record-holder, the pulsar in the famous Crab Nebula. Yet they have roughly similar levels of radio, optical and X-ray emission. Accounting for these differences will guide astronomers to a better understanding of the extreme physics at work in young pulsars. Learn more about Pulsars at http://www.spacetv.net/pulsars/
Learn more about Neutron Stars at http://www.spacetv.net/neutron-stars/
Learn more about Stars at http://www.spacetv.net/stars/ Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Fermi Space Telescope Catches a 'Transformer' Pulsar
In late June 2013, an exceptional binary system containing a rapidly spinning neutron star underwent a dramatic change in behavior never before observed. The pulsar's radio beacon vanished, while at the same time the system brightened fivefold in gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, according to measurements by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The system, known as AY Sextantis, is located about 4,400 light-years away in the constellation Sextans. It pairs a 1.7-millisecond pulsar named PSR J1023+0038 -- J1023 for short -- with a star containing about one-fifth the mass of the sun. The stars complete an orbit in only 4.8 hours, which places them so close together that the pulsar will gradually evaporate its companion. To better understand J1023's spin and orbital evolution, the system was routinely monitored in radio. These observations revealed that the pulsar's radio signal had turned off and prompted the search for an associated change in its gamma-ray properties. What's happening, astronomers say, are the last sputtering throes of the pulsar spin-up process. Researchers regard the system as a unique laboratory for understanding how millisecond pulsars form and for studying details of how accretion takes place on neutron stars. In J1023, the stars are close enough that a stream of gas flows from the sun-like star toward the pulsar. The pulsar's rapid rotation and intense magnetic field are responsible for both the radio beam and its powerful pulsar wind. When the radio beam is detectable, the pulsar wind holds back the companion's gas stream, preventing it from approaching too closely. But now and then the stream surges, pushing its way closer to the pulsar and establishing an accretion disk. When gas from the disk falls to an altitude of about 50 miles (80 km), processes involved in creating the radio beam are either shut down or, more likely, obscured. Some of the gas may be accelerated outward at nearly the speed of light, forming dual particle jets firing in opposite directions. Shock waves within and along the periphery of these jets are a likely source of the bright gamma-ray emission detected by Fermi. Read more at: http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/n... This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11609 Subscribe for more Space wonders on ΥουΤυbe: https://tinyurl.com/SpaceTelescopesYouTube
Classroom Aid - Hulse-Taylor Pulsar PSR B1913+16
Text http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Gravitational-Waves.pdf Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf
Less Than Five - What is a Pulsar?
Pulsars are an exotic astronomical object left over from exploding stars. Mysterious as they may be, science has helped us to reveal several facts about these cosmological rogues.
NASA | Fermi Detects First Gamma-ray Pulsar in Another Galaxy
Researchers using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have discovered the first gamma-ray pulsar in a galaxy other than our own. The object sets a new record for the most luminous gamma-ray pulsar known. The pulsar lies in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that orbits our Milky Way and is located 163,000 light-years away. The Tarantula Nebula is the largest, most active and most complex star-formation region in our galactic neighborhood. It was identified as a bright source of gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light, early in the Fermi mission. Astronomers initially attributed this glow to collisions of subatomic particles accelerated in the shock waves produced by supernova . However, the discovery of gamma-ray pulses from a previously known pulsar named PSR J0540-6919 shows that it is responsible for roughly half of the gamma-ray brightness previously thought to come from the nebula. Gamma-ray pulses from J0540-6919 have 20 times the intensity of the previous record-holder, the pulsar in the famous Crab Nebula. Yet they have roughly similar levels of radio, optical and X-ray emission. Accounting for these differences will guide astronomers to a better understanding of the extreme physics at work in young pulsars. Read more at http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/nasas-fermi-satellite-detects-first-gamma-ray-pulsar-in-another-galaxy This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=12003 Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast:
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Neutron Stars: Crash Course Astronomy #32
In the aftermath of a 8 – 20 solar mass star’s demise we find a weird little object known as a neutron star. Neutrons stars are incredibly dense, spin rapidly, and have very strong magnetic fields. Some of them we see as pulsars, flashing in brightness as they spin. Neutrons stars with the strongest magnetic fields are called magnetars, and are capable of colossal bursts of energy that can be detected over vast distances. Crash Course Astronomy Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-astronomy-poster -- Table of Contents
A Star Can Collapse to Form a Neutron Star 0:59
Neutron Star Characteristics 2:24
Magnetars 8:15 -- PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Follow Phil on Twitter: https://twitter.com/badastronomer Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
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Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse -- PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Star Burst https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11447 [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
X-ray Images of G292.0+1.8 http://chandra.harvard.edu/resources/animations/snr.html/?page=8 [credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Penn State/S.Park et al.; Optical: Pal.Obs. DSS]
Neutron star cross section https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neutron_star_cross_section.jpg [credit: NASA]
Fermi Spots 'Superflares' in the Crab Nebula https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDhdwgK218E [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
What is a pulsar? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gjLk_72V9Bw [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Jocelyn Bell http://blog.sciencemuseum.org.uk/insight/2013/03/20/1960-discovery-of-pulsars/ [credit: National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library]
Beacons of X-ray Light https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6p2OGc6a_TQ [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]
Chandra Time-Lapse Movie http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2002/0052/animations.html [credit: NASA/CXC/ASU/J.Hester et al.]
NASA's Fermi Satellite Finds Hints of Starquakes in Magnetar 'Storm' http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasas-fermi-satellite-finds-hints-of-starquakes-in-magnetar-storm [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]
NASA's Swift Reveals New Phenomenon in a Neutron Star http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts/new-phenom.html#.Vcp-6flVhBe [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Cosmic Explosion Second Only to the Sun in Brightness https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=20077 [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
What the Binary Pulsar Can Tell Us
A neutron star is a rotating, superdense, dead star. A pulsar is a type of neutron star that must be both magnetized and moving very fast, because it spins its magnetic field fast enough to produce a beam of electromagnetic radiation. Astrophysicist Andrea Lommen explains a research study of the binary system known a PSR 1913+16, where a neutron star and a pulsar orbit each other. This study yielded a result that only Einstein would have found unsurprising: gravitational waves must exist! Original Program Date: June 4, 2010
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