OTD in Space - Oct. 4: Sputnik 1 Becomes 1st Human-Made Satellite to Orbit the Earth
On Oct. 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the satellite that started the Space Race. Sputnik 1 was the first human-made object to orbit the Earth, and it set off a wave of fear and anxiety across the U.S. now known as the "Sputnik crisis." Sputnik was a metal sphere roughly 2 feet (58 cm) in diameter with four long radio antennas. These antennas transmitted little beeping pulses down to Earth that even amateur radio operators could hear. The satellite spent 21 days in orbit before it burned up in Earth's atmosphere.
Sputnik was the Soviets' Backup Satellite
I've got more detail on the story of Sputnik being the backup choice of Soviet scientists on my blog, so do check that out for more details! http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/vintagespace/2017/10/04/sputnik-was-the-soviets-backup-satellite/#.WdUvL0yZMo8
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Sputnik - 60 years on from the Start of the Space Race
That simple little beep, beep, beep was the sound that started the Space Race. It's been 60 years since they have first heard on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 into a low Earth orbit. It was only a metal ball, 22 inches or about 56 centimetres in diameter, with four antennae sticking out of it – but it had an impact far greater than its size. In fact, it changed the course of human history.
EDIT: a couple of mistakes on my part. Firstly the date Khrushchev said "we will bury you" was 1956 on 1965, for some reason i said 65 even though the script said 56.
Second, the pic of Dmitry Ustinov, I focused on the wrong man, it should have been the one in the bottom right which is partially cut out.
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Sputnik 1 - 7 Fun Facts About the First Artificial Satellite
The satellite was launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. Here are some facts about its launch and the repercussions of it. -- Learn more about Sputnik: https://www.space.com/17563-sputnik.html
Credit: Space.com / edited by Steve Spaleta
Sputnik 60th anniversary
The 4 October 2017 marks the sixtieth anniversary of the launch of the first satellite: Sputnik. The Soviet spacecraft was only equipped with a simple transmitter, but its incessant beeping sent shockwaves around the world and its flight marked the beginning of the space race.
Today’s sophisticated satellites can trace their origins back to Sputnik and astronauts still begin their journey from the same launch site in Baikonur.
ESA Euronews: 60 years since Sputnik
Sixty years ago, Sputnik became the first satellite in space and changed the world forever.
Launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, this shiny orb kick-started the space race, and opened up the heavens for mankind to explore.
To mark the occasion ESA Euronews arranged access to the private museum of RSC Energia, the Russian state company that actually built the world’s first satellite, officially called Sputnik-1. Hanging in this Moscow treasure trove of pioneering space probes is one of the original Sputnik flight spares, built in 1957. Compact, at just over 80 kilogrammes, its polished surfaces and distinctive antennae are now unmistakable - look at this satellite, and the first word in your mind is 'Sputnik'.
This video is also available in the following languages:
Sputnik 1: The First Report of the First Satellite in Space (1957)
A public domain video
A 1957 newsreel of the first report of Sputnik - animations of rocket.
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. It was visible all around the Earth and its radio pulses were detectable. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.
Tracking and studying Sputnik 1 from Earth provided scientists with valuable information, even though the satellite itself wasn't equipped with sensors. The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave information about the ionosphere.
Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour (18,000 mph; 8,100 m/s), taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik burned up on 4 January 1958 while reentering Earth's atmosphere, after travelling about 70 million km (43 million mi) and spending three months in orbit.
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Launch of Sputnik 1 October 4, 1957
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. (From Wikipedia)
Satellite.Replica of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1 (/ˈspʌtnɪk/; Russian: Спутник-1 [ˈsputnʲɪk] "Satellite-1", or ПС-1 ["PS-1", i.e., Russian: Простейший Спутник-1 "Elementary Satellite 1"]) was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. It was visible all around the Earth and its radio pulses were detectable. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.
Sputnik itself provided scientists with valuable information, even though it was not equipped with sensors, by tracking and studying the satellite from Earth. The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave information about the ionosphere.
Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour (18,000 mph; 8,100 m/s), taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik 1 burned up on 4 January 1958, as it fell from orbit upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, after travelling about 70 million km (43.5 million miles) and spending three months in orbit
On 17 December 1954, chief Soviet rocket scientist Sergei Korolev addressed Dimitri Ustinov and proposed a developmental plan for an artificial satellite. Korolev forwarded a report by Mikhail Tikhonravov with an overview of similar projects abroad. Tikhonravov had emphasized that the launch of an orbital satellite was an inevitable stage in the development of rocket technology.
On 29 July 1955, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced through his press secretary that the United States would launch an artificial satellite during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). A week later, on 8 August, the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union approved the proposal to create an artificial satellite. On 30 August Vasily Ryabikov – the head of the State Commission on R-7 rocket test launches – held a meeting where Korolev presented calculation data for a spaceflight trajectory to the Moon. They decided to develop a three-stage version of the R-7 rocket for satellite launches.
This metal arming key is the last remaining piece of the first Sputnik satellite. It prevented contact between the batteries and the transmitter prior to launch. Currently on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.
On 30 January 1956 the Council of Ministers approved practical work on an artificial Earth-orbiting satellite. This satellite, named Object D, was planned to be completed in 1957–58; it would have a mass of 1,000 to 1,400 kg (2,200 to 3,100 lb) and would carry 200 to 300 kg (440 to 660 lb) of scientific instruments. The first test launch of "Object D" was scheduled for 1957. Work on the satellite was to be divided between institutions as follows:
the USSR Academy of Sciences was responsible for the general scientific leadership and research instruments supply
the Ministry of Defense Industry and its primary design bureau OKB-1 were assigned the task of building the satellite
the Ministry of Radiotechnical Industry would develop the control system, radio/technical instruments and the telemetry system
the Ministry of Ship Building Industry would develop gyroscope devices
the Ministry of Machine Building would develop ground launching, refueling and transportation means
the Ministry of Defense was responsible for conducting launches
Preliminary design work was completed by July 1956 and the scientific tasks to be carried out by the satellite were defined. These included measuring the density of the atmosphere and its ion composition, the solar wind, magnetic fields, and cosmic rays. These data would be valuable in the creation of future artificial satellites. A system of ground stations was to be developed to collect data transmitted by the satellite, observe the satellite's orbit, and transmit commands to the satellite. Because of the limited time frame, observations were planned for only 7 to 10 days and orbit calculations were not expected to be extremely accurate.
The First Spy Satellites: Corona and Discoverer
For more on the Corona program and the intricate recovery of Discoverer satellite film cannisters: http://www.dvice.com/2013-8-28/birth-spy-satellite
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Neil deGrasse Tyson: Don't Sit Around Waiting for a Sputnik Moment
In Space Chronicles, Neil deGrasse Tyson describes how the Soviet Union was a catalyst for the U.S. space program, and China might be considered a similar catalyst today (http://goo.gl/fzGtH).
When the president, President Obama, mentioned the Sputnik moment, seeing that we are losing a competitive edge to the Chinese and others, said, "This is a new Sputnik moment" and then he gave a list of things we should do, which included like higher speed Internet and light rail. I'm thinking, no, no. Energy independence, that's not a Sputnik moment. We should have those things anyway. Sputnik moments, you reserve those for grand visions that take your mind, body and soul to places that no one had previously dreamed. Sputnik moments are occasions where you invent tomorrow.
I'm not old enough to remember 1957 but there's certainly plenty of people among us who do. And when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik that was a Sputnik moment. This was our sworn enemy, the communists. And we had our own state of self-assessment that we were technologically proficient, you know, we won the war. Our manufacturing was back in place and here's this country that we were telling the whole world that we were better than they were in every way that mattered and, bam, out comes a satellite.
Our response was we created NASA; first we went berserk then we created NASA a year later. We redoubled our efforts in science and technology and engineering. And that would shape the identity of the United States from the end of the 1950s through the 1970s.
The Sputnicity of that moment I think comes from the fact, whether or not the public knew this, the military folks knew it, that Sputnik was a hollowed out intercontinental ballistic missile shell. They took out the warhead and put in a radio transmitter that went beep, beep. The military folks knew that if they could put a radio transmitter in a ballistic missile shell and fly it over our heads that they have the new higher ground.
So in that case the Sputnik moment was a military one. And it was clear that technology and science would be what would enable nations to take the lead and the high ground.
Right now we're, we in America, we're sort of slowing down, or maybe everyone else is just speeding up but the effect is we've lost our edge. We've lost our leadership position.
When President Obama said, "In a Sputnik moment, in fact we will rejuvenate the space program." The space program in fact is not dead it's just kind of smoldering back there. One of them is we'll be back to Mars in the 2030s, 2030's, maybe as early as the late 2020's. Who's gonna be president? On what budget? So that's a nice thing to listen to in a speech because he's thinking about the future but that's not a future that's actually within reach that anyone can act upon.
I don't like Sputnik moments. I'd rather have been the leader all along. Why do we have to be shocked into being motivated to lead? Why don't we just lead all the time? And maybe that's just unrealistic, maybe that's just not human nature. Maybe we have to feel threatened in order to act.
So yes Sputnik moments work, and if we can't lead all the time, let it be a Sputnik moment that kick starts our heart back beating again. But I can't help but be a little disappointed that we haven't stayed there. That we're going to have to play catch-up if we're gonna catch up at all.
Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd
The Moment Sputnik Terrified & Thrilled Americans
This is a portion of my feature documentary, Sputnik Mania. I was alive during this moment and recreated the experience that I and millions of others experienced for my film. It took me several years to find this footage from locations all over the world. If you would like to see the 90 min. documentary, http://www.createspace.com/206142 .
This Month in (Vintage) Space History -- October 2012
Chuck Yeager flew through the sound barrier on October 14, 1947; the Soviet Union launched Sputnik on October 4, 1957, and NASA went into operation on October 1, 1958. We look at all three events on this edition of This Month in (Vintage) Space History.
For more spaceflight history, check out my blog Vintage Space: http://amyshirateitel.com/vintagespace/
For more on Yeager's supersonic flight: http://amyshirateitel.com/2012/10/14/when-yeager-eased-through-the-sound-barrie/
For more on the psychology of Sputnik: http://news.discovery.com/space/the-psychology-of-sputnik-121004.html
SPUTNIK 1 CBS NEWS SPECIAL REPORT ON TV, October 6 1957
The launch is October 4 1957, was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at 29,000 kilometers (18,000 mi) per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete an orbit, and emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. burned up on 4 January 1958, as it fell from orbit upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, after travelling about 60 million km (37 million miles) and spending 3 months in orbit.INFO: WIKIPEDIA CUTS
Sputnik Provoked The Space Age
To see my entire feature Doc visit https://www.createspace.com/206142. You are watching the first section of my feature documentary, Sputnik Mania. It was made with my talented editor/ally John Vincent Barrett. In making this I decided intentionally not to make a TV special but to make a feature, with music and narrator, and drama not common in TV docs. I am proud of his work and hope you enjoy it. David Hoffman. Www.theHoffmancollection.com.
The Story Of The Sputnik Moment
Please purchase my entire film at https://www.createspace.com/256957 . I made the feature documentary, Sputnik Mania. Critics and allies told me that I had to tell the story of what happened to American education during that period, how we changed ourselves so radically in science, engineering, and math -- our complete education system really. With the help of one wonderful collector of old footage, I made this story for schools, teachers, educational leaders. It shows what happens, and the footage proves it.
The Russian Sputnik - 1
Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4th 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.
Launch of Sputnik 1 - October 4, 1957
This video shows the launch of Sputnik 1.
Sputnik-1 Telemetry Signal (audio)
This is what you would heard had you tuned in to
Sputnik 1's radio signal on Oct. 4, 1957.