Dark Energy’s Effect Over Time Tracked by Astronomers
A study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, ESA's XMM-Newton and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey tracked dark engergy back to one billion years after the Big Bang. -- Learn more about it: http://chandra.cfa.harvard.edu/photo/2019/dark/
Credit: NASA/CXC/A. Hobart
XMM-Newton and Chandra combined analysis of the most massive galaxy clusters at z~1
XMM-Newton and Chandra combined analysis of the most massive galaxy clusters at z~1
Talk by Dr. Iacopo Bartalucci (CEA, Université Paris-Saclay)
Given at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias on May 10th, 2018 10:30 AM
We present a detailed study of the spatially resolved thermodynamic and hydrostatic mass profiles of the five most massive clusters detected at z~1 via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. These objects represent an ideal laboratory to test our models in a mass regime where structure formation is driven mainly by gravity. We present a method to study these objects that optimally exploits information from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. The combination of Chandra’s excellent spatial resolution and XMM-Newton’s photon collecting power allows us to spatially resolve the profiles from the core to the outskirts, for the first time in such objects. Evolution properties are investigated by comparison with the REXCESS local galaxy cluster sample. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of this method in the context of joint analysis of future Chandra and XMM large programs and, more generally, of multi-wavelength efforts to study high redshift objects.
More talks at IACTalks: http://iactalks.iac.es
How to interactively analyze XMM-Newton data from the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA)
This video shows how to interactively analyze XMM-Newton
data from the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA).
XMM-Newton Science Archive: http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/
XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/xmm-newton
XMM-Newton Helpdesk: http://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/xmm-newton/xmm-newton-helpdesk
ESAC Science Data Centre: http://archives.esac.esa.int
XMM-Newton - Video Learning - WizScience.com
The "XMM-Newton", also known as the "X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission" and the "High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission", is an orbiting X-ray observatory launched by ESA in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket. It is named in honor of Sir Isaac Newton. The telescope was placed in a very eccentric 48 hour elliptical orbit at 40°; at its apogee it is nearly 114000 kilometers from Earth, while the perigee is only 7000 kilometers.
The observational scope of XMM-Newton includes the detection of X-ray emissions from Solar System objects, detailed studies of star-forming regions, investigation of the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, the environment of supermassive black holes and the mapping of the mysterious dark matter.
The mission was proposed in 1984 and approved in 1985; a project team was formed in 1993 and development work began in 1996. The satellite was constructed and tested from March 1997 to September 1999. Launched in Dec 1999, in-orbit commissioning started Jan 2000, and the first images were published in February 2000. The original mission lifetime was two years, but it was extended for further observations. Its most recent extension was to 31 December 2016. Technically, the observatory could operate until beyond 2018.
Observations are managed and archived at the European Space Astronomy Centre at Villafranca, Spain. Until March 2012 the scientific data placed into the archive and distributed to observers were processed by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre led by the University of Leicester, England. After this date, responsibility for data processing transferred to the Science Operations Centre at ESAC.
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XMM-Newton Science Archive: Performing a Basic Search
This video provides an introduction to the main search interface of the XMM-Newton Science Archive, used to perform a basic search. For more help or information on using the archive visit: http://archives.esac.esa.int/xsa/#help
Launch of XMM-Newton aboard Ariane 504, December 10 1999.
In this fifth episode of the [email protected]
vodcast series Rebecca Barnes will give us a glimpse of the hot, energetic and often violent Universe revealed through X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, look at ESA missions that detect this hidden light and find out how the science that these missions perform is meticulously planned.
Centaurus A: The dark heart of a cosmic collision
Two of ESA's space observatories, XMM-Newton and Herschel, have combined to create a multi-wavelength view of violent events taking place within the giant galaxy of Centaurus A. The new observations strengthen the view that it may have been created by the cataclysmic collision of two older galaxies.
New images taken with the Herschel space observatory with unprecedented resolution at far-infrared wavelengths show that the giant black scar of obscuring dust crossing the centre of Centaurus A all but disappears.
ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory recorded the high-energy glow from one of the jets, extending over 12 000 light years away from the galaxy's bright nucleus.
XMM-Newton's X-ray view shows not only the way that the jet interacts with the surrounding interstellar matter, but also the galaxy's intensely active nucleus, and its large gaseous halo.
The Galactic Bulge as seen by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL satellites
The central region of our Milky Way, the Galactic Bulge, is a rich host of variable high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray sources. Thanks to regular observations by XMM-Newton and Integral observatories over the last ten years, this dynamic environment has been charted in extensive detail, as revealed in this video.
A New View of an Icon: M16 in the Eagle Nebula
The Eagle Nebula as never seen before. In 1995, the Hubble Space Telescope's 'Pillars of Creation' image of the Eagle Nebula became one of the most iconic images of the 20th century. Now, two of ESA's orbiting observatories, XMM-Newton and Herschel satellites, have shed new light on this enigmatic star-forming region.
The ESA Herschel Space Observatory's new image shows the pillars and the wide field of gas and dust around them. Captured in far-infrared wavelengths, the image allows astronomers to see inside the pillars and structures in the region.
In parallel, a new multi-energy X-ray image from ESA's XMM-Newton telescope shows those hot young stars responsible for carving the pillars.
Andromeda's coat of many colours
ESA's fleet of space telescopes has captured the nearby Andromeda Galaxy, also known as M31, in different wavelengths. Most of these wavelengths are invisible to the eye and each shows a different aspect of the galaxy's nature.
Visible light, as seen by optical ground-based telescopes and our eyes, reveals the various stars that shine in the Andromeda Galaxy, yet it is just one small part of the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. There are many different wavelengths that are invisible to us but which are revealed by ESA's orbiting telescopes.
Starting at the long wavelength end, the Planck spacecraft collects microwaves. These show up particles of incredibly cold dust, at just a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. Slightly higher temperature dust is revealed by the shorter, infrared wavelengths observed by the Herschel space telescope. This dust traces locations in the spiral arms of the Andromeda Galaxy where new stars are being born today.
The XMM-Newton telescope detects wavelengths shorter than visible light, collecting ultraviolet and X-rays. These show older stars, many nearing the end of their lives and others that have already exploded, sending shockwaves rolling through space. By monitoring the core of Andromeda since 2002, XMM-Newton has revealed many variable stars, some of which have undergone large stellar detonations known as novae.
Ultraviolet wavelengths also display the light from extremely massive stars. These are young stars that will not live long. They exhaust their nuclear fuel and explode as supernovae typically within a few tens of millions of years after they are born. The ultraviolet light is usually absorbed by dust and re-emitted as infrared, so the areas where ultraviolet light is seen directly correspond to relatively clear, dust-free parts of Andromeda.
By putting all of these observations together, and seeing Andromeda in its many different colours, astronomers are able to follow the life cycle of the stars.
XMM Newton: unveiling the universe
In 1895 German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered rays which he didn't know much about, so he called them X-Rays. One of the best known applications for these rays today is medical imaging. In space scientists are interested in the sources of X-Rays. The ten year XMM Newton mission is the subject of this "Space" programme....
1999: XMM-Newton (ESA)
The XMM-Newton (X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission - Newton) is an orbiting X-ray observatory, named in honour of Isaac Newton. It was launched by the European Space Agency from Kourou on 10 December 1999 by an Ariane 5 rocket.
XMM-Newton Space Telescope
After launch from Kourou, French Guiana on 10 December 1999, the European Space Agency's X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever placed in orbit. Scientists are sure the mission will help solve many cosmic mysteries, ranging from enigmatic black holes to the formation of galaxies.
Many celestial objects generate X-rays in extremely violent processes. But Earth's atmosphere blocks out these X-rays, messengers of what occurred in the distant past when stars were born or died, and clues to our future. Only by placing X-ray detectors in space can such sources be detected, pinpointed and studied in detail. XMM-Newton, the largest science satellite ever built in Europe, has an unprecedented sensitivity.
XMM-Newton carries three very advanced X-ray telescopes. They each contain 58 high-precision concentric mirrors, delicately nested to offer the largest collecting area possible to catch the elusive X-rays. These Mirror Modules allow XMM-Newton to detect millions of sources, far more than any previous X-ray mission.